Silver and Copper Microstructures: The Workfunction’s Effect
Modern Chemistry
Volume 5, Issue 1, February 2017, Pages: 1-6
Received: Feb. 9, 2017; Published: Feb. 10, 2017
Views 3880      Downloads 85
Authors
Tahir Mehmood, The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, International Research Institute for Steel Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China
Aiman Mukhtar, The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, International Research Institute for Steel Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P. R. China
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
To understand the growth mechanism of Ag and Cu nanowires we have studied the effect of workfunction on the metal nanowire growth by XRD, SEM and Potentiostat. Under the same potential and overpotential, the metal with a smaller workfunction has a higher current density, i.e. current density for Ag is higher than of Cu nanowires. Likewise metals, the plane with smaller workfunction grows faster than with the larger workfunction, thus the preferential growth plane is (220) for both metals. We argued that the current arises from electrons tunneling from metal surface to hydrated metal and hydrogen ions. The metal with a smaller workfunction has a thinner barrier for tunneling, thus leading to a higher current density. It is found that deposition method have no such effect on the structure of deposited nanowires.
Keywords
Workfunction, Electron Tunneling, Metal Nanowires, Growth
To cite this article
Tahir Mehmood, Aiman Mukhtar, Silver and Copper Microstructures: The Workfunction’s Effect, Modern Chemistry. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.mc.20170501.11
References
[1]
Chaney SB, Shanmukh S, Dluhy RA, Zhao Y-P. Aligned silver nanorod arrays produce high sensitivity surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates. Applied Physics Letters. 2005; 3: 87.
[2]
Riveros G, Green S, Cortes A, Gómez H, Marotti RE, Dalchiele EA. Silver nanowire arrays electrochemically grown into nanoporous anodic alumina templates. Nanotechnology. 2006; 17: 561.
[3]
Valizadeh S, George JM, Leisner P, Hultman L. Electrochemical synthesis of Ag/Co multilayered nanowires in porous polycarbonate membranes. Thin Solid Films. 2002; 402: 262-71.
[4]
Yao JL, Pan GP, Xue KH, Wu DY, Ren B, Sun DM, et al. A complementary study of surface-enhanced Raman scattering and metal nanorod arrays. Pure and Applied Chemistry2000. p. 221.
[5]
Cheng Y-H, Cheng S-Y. Nanostructures formed by Ag nanowires. Nanotechnology. 2004; 15: 171.
[6]
Peng Y, Chen Q. Fabrication of one-dimensional Ag/multiwalled carbon nanotube nano-composite. Nanoscale Research Letters. 2012; 7: 195.
[7]
Martin CR. Nanomaterials: A Membrane-Based Synthetic Approach. Science. 1994; 266: 1961-6.
[8]
Whitney TM, Searson PC, Jiang JS, Chien CL. Fabrication and Magnetic Properties of Arrays of Metallic Nanowires. Science. 1993; 261: 1316-9.
[9]
Wen-Ching Tsai C-CW, and Yung-Yun Wang. Frequency Effect of Pulse Plating on the Uniformity of Copper Deposition in Plated Through Holes. J Electrochem Soc. 2003; 150: 267-72.
[10]
A. J. Yin JL, W. Jian, A. J. Bennett, and J. M. Xu. Fabrication of highly ordered metallic nanowire arrays by electrodeposition. Applied Physics Letters. 2001; 79: 1039.
[11]
El‐Giar EM, Said RA, Bridges GE, Thomson DJ. Localized Electrochemical Deposition of Copper Microstructures. Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 2000; 147: 586-91.
[12]
Routkevitch D, Bigioni T, Moskovits M, Xu JM. Electrochemical Fabrication of CdS Nanowire Arrays in Porous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates. The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 1996; 100: 14037-47.
[13]
Ozin GA. Nanochemistry: Synthesis in diminishing dimensions. Advanced Materials. 1992; 4: 612-49.
[14]
Tonucci RJ, Justus, B. J., Campillo, A. J., and Ford, C. E. NANOCHANNEL ARRAY GLASS. Science. 1992; 258: 783-5.
[15]
Han G C, Zong B Y, H WY. IEEE Trans Magn. 2002: 2562–4.
[16]
D. J. Sellmyer MZ, R. Skomski. Magnetism of Fe, Co, and Ni Nanowires in Self-Assembled Arrays. J Phys Condens Matter. 2001; 13: R433-R60
[17]
Tian ML, Wang JG, Kurtz J, Mallouk TE, Chan MHW. Single-Crystal Metal Nanowires via a Two-Dimensional Nucleation and Growth Mechanism. Nano Letters. 2003; 3: 919-23.
[18]
Tan M, Chen XQ. Growth Mechanism of Single Crystal Nanowires of fcc Metals (Ag, Cu, Ni) and hcp Metal (Co) Electrodeposited. Journal of The Electrochemical Society. 2012; 159: K15.
[19]
Lower SK. Electrochemistry. Textbook: Simon Fraser University.
[20]
Mukhtar A, Shahzad Khan B, Mehmood T. Appropriate deposition parameters for formation of fcc Co–Ni alloy nanowires during electrochemical deposition process. Applied Physics A. 2016; 122: 1022.
[21]
Mehmood T, Mukhtar A, Wang H, Khan BS. Effect of deposition parameters on the crystal orientation and growth of Ag nanowires. International Journal of Materials Research. 2016; 107: 283-6.
[22]
Mehmood T, Shahzad Khan B, Mukhtar A, Chen X, Yi P, Tan M. Mechanism for formation of fcc-cobalt nanowires in electrodeposition at ambient temperature. Materials Letters. 2014; 130: 256-8.
[23]
Chelvayohan M, Mee CHB. Work function measurements on (110), (100) and (111) surfaces of silver. Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics. 1982; 15: 2305.
[24]
Gartland P, Berge S, Slagsvold B. Photoelectric Work Function of a Copper Single Crystal for the (100), (110), (111), and (112) Faces. Physical Review Letters. 1972; 28: 738-9.
[25]
Milan Paunovic, Schlesinger M. Fundamentals of Electrochemical Deposition. Fundamentals of Electrochemical Deposition, New York: Wiley. 1998.
[26]
Tully JC, N. H. Tolk. In: N. H. Tolk JCT, W. Heiland, C. W. White, editor. Inelastic Particle-Surface Collision. New York: Academic Press INC; 1977. p. 105.
[27]
Mehmood T, Mukhtar A, Khan BS, Wu K. Growth Mechanism of Electrodeposited Fe, Co and Ni Nanowires in the Form of Self-Assembled Arrays at Fixed Potential. Int J Electrochem Sci. 2016; 11: 6423-31.
[28]
Leemput LECvd, Kempen Hv. Scanning tunnelling microscopy. Rep Prog Phys. 1992; 55 1165.
[29]
Shahzad Khan B, Mehmood T, Mukhtar A, Tan M. Effect of workfunction on the growth of electrodeposited Cu, Ni and Co nanowires. Materials Letters. 2014; 137: 13-6.
[30]
Khan BS, Mukhtar A, Mehmood T, Tan M. Polarization Curves of Electrodepositing Ag and Cu Nanowires. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 2016; 16: 9896-900.
[31]
Garrett SJ. Introduction to Surface Analysis. the Michigan State University, Chemistry Department, East Lansing.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186