Thermal Sampling and Compensation Phenomena of PVVH/ZnO Nanocomposite Polymer Using TSDC Technique
Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2017, Pages: 60-69
Received: May 16, 2017;
Accepted: Jul. 4, 2017;
Published: Aug. 10, 2017
Views 1732 Downloads 60
Moustafa Tawfik Ahmed, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Maysa Ismail Abd-Elhamid, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Afaf Sarhan, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Aya Hassan, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Thermo-electrets of poly (vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate-co-2 hydroxy propyl acrylate) PVVH and its nanocomposite PVVH/ZnO were prepared using the thermal poling method. Thermally stimulated depolarization current TSDC technique used to study the alpha relaxation of the samples. The global spectra of the nanocomposites revealed that ZnO nanoparticles are completely compatible with the polymer matrix. The activation energy was calculated and found to be in the range of 0.69-1.25 eV. TS technique was used to resolve the complex TSDC behavior and thermodynamic parameters were obtained from Eyring relationship which verified the linear relation between the activation enthalpy ΔH and the activation entropy ΔS. The compensation phenomena had been studied and the degree of disorder DOD of all samples has been calculated and results values in the range 15 to 35.24 Cal degree-1.
Moustafa Tawfik Ahmed,
Maysa Ismail Abd-Elhamid,
Thermal Sampling and Compensation Phenomena of PVVH/ZnO Nanocomposite Polymer Using TSDC Technique, Modern Chemistry.
Vol. 5, No. 4,
2017, pp. 60-69.
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Barkade, Shrikant S., Jitendra B. Naik, and Shirish H. Sonawane. "Ultrasound assisted miniemulsion synthesis of polyaniline/Ag nanocomposite and its application for ethanol vapor sensing." Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 378.1 (2011): 94-98.
Zhang, J., et al., Microwave dielectric properties and thermally stimulated depolarization currents of (1− x) MgTiO3–xCa0. 8Sr0. 2TiO3 ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2015. 98(5): p. 1548-1554.
Zhang, P., et al. Thermally stimulated depolarization processes in zirconia toughened alumina ceramics. in Dielectrics (ICD), 2016 IEEE International Conference on. 2016. IEEE.
Ko, Y. S., et al. Temperature dependent impedance spectroscopy and Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current (TSDC) analysis of disperse red 1-co-poly (methyl methacrylate) copolymers. in SPIE Smart Structures and Materials+ Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring. 2016. International Society for Optics and Photonics.
Ahmed M. T. "Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current and Thermal Sampling Studies on Poly (Vinyl Chloride- Co-Vinylacetate-Co-2-Hydroxypropyl Acrylate)/Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Blends." International Journal of Material Science ISSN 0973-4589 Volume 4, Number 1 (2009), pp. 57–71.
Ruckenstein Eli, and Yumin Yuan. "Nanocomposites of rigid polyamide dispersed in flexible vinyl polymer." Polymer 38.15 (1997): 3855-3860.
Joao F. Mano. "The relaxation frequency as observed in thermally stimulated depolarisation current experiments in polymers." Thermochimica Acta 332 (1999) 161-170.
Ragab H. S., Shehab A., Attia G. and Abd El- Kader F. H. "Effect of the metal oxides additives on the electrical properties of β-eucryptite ceramics." Egypt. J. Sol. 26 (2003).
Jung-Fong Lin, Ching-Fu Ho, Shin-Yon Wu and Steve K. Huang. "Study on the depolarization transition of the modified epoxy resins containing penta-coordinated aromatic phosphate by thermally stimulated current technique with the relaxation mapping analysis." Thermochimica Acta 333 (1999) 55-65.
Sauer Bryan B., and Joaquim J. Moura Ramos. "Comments on compensation analysis as applied to thermally stimulated current thermal sampling." Polymer 38. 16 (1997): 4065-4069.
Dargent, E., Kattan M., Cabot C., Lebaudy P., Ledru J. and Grenet J. "Compensation effect observed in thermally stimulated depolarization currents analysis of polymers." Journal of applied polymer science 74. 11 (1999): 2716-2723.
Fragiadakis, Daniel, Polycarpos Pissis, and Liliane Bokobza. "Glass transition and molecular dynamics in poly (dimethylsiloxane)/silica nanocomposites." Polymer 46.16 (2005): 6001-6008.
Elashmawi, I. S., Hakeem N. A., Marei L. K. and Hanna F. F. "Structure and performance of ZnO/PVC nanocomposites." Physica B: Condensed Matter 405.19 (2010): 4163-4169.
Migahed M. D., Ahmed M. T., Kotp A. E. and El-Henawy M. I. "Iterative evaluation of thermally stimulated depolarization current peak parameters in polymers: A dipolar interaction approach to molecular dipole relaxation" Journal of applied physics. Vol. 78 (1995) pp. 5079.
Ahmed M. T. and Fahmy T. Alpha relaxation study in poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(ethyl methacrylate) blends using thermally stimulated currents, Polymer International 49 (7) (2000) 669 – 677.
Ahmed M. T. and Fahmy T. Study of the Relaxation Phenomenon of Poly(vinyl chloride-co-vinylacetate-co-2-hydroxypropyl acrylate)/ Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends Using TSDC-TS Technique: Dipole-dipole Interaction ApproachJournal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 1, July (2011), pp. 98_104.
Ahmed M. T. and Fahmy T. Depolarization current characterization of poly (vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate-co-2-2 hydroxypropyl acrylate) polymer films: thermal sampling study, 7th Arab International conference on polymer science & technology Egypt, October (2003) 5-9.
Ahmed M. T. and Fahmy T. "Distributed relaxations in PVC/PEMA polymer blends as revealed by thermostimulated depolarization current." Polymer testing 18 (1999) 589-599.
Values S. G. and Tager A. physical chemistry of polymer, Mir publishers Moscow (1978).
Migahed M. D., Ahmed M. T. and Kotp A. E. "Thermos-kinetic characteristic study of alfa-relaxation in poly (methyl methacrylate) poly (vinyl chloride) blend" journal of polymer materials 19 (2001) 157-164.
Ibar J. P. Application of compensation phenomena to the thermal analysis characterization of polymers: Introducing the degree of disorder (DOD) number, polymer engineering & science. Volume 31, Issue 20 October (1991) Pages 1467–1475.