Chemical Speciation, Bioavailability and Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Metals in Highway Dusts as Indicators of Highway Pollution
Volume 7, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 30-37
Received: Aug. 11, 2019;
Accepted: Aug. 29, 2019;
Published: Sep. 17, 2019
Views 603 Downloads 81
Festus Mayowa Adebiyi, Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Abiodun Odunlami Adegunwa, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria
Odunayo Timothy Ore, Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Godswill Ehimengbale Akhigbe, Department of Chemistry, McPherson University, Ajebo, Nigeria
This paper investigated concentrations of heavy metals in roadside soil dusts collected along Ife-Ibadan highway in Osun state, Nigeria with the aim of assessing the impacts of vehicular emissions on the environments. The soil dusts were analyzed for total metal concentrations and speciation using Atomic absorption spectrophotometry followed by the evaluation of the metal bioavailability. Results of the total metal analysis indicated that the concentrations of the metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) were higher in the contaminated soils than control soils and their WHO maximum allowable limits. The pattern of the total mean concentrations of the metals is in the order: Fe > Cu > Mn > Zn > Pb. The contamination factors of the metals showed that the soils suffered contamination. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that differences existed significantly in the mean values for all the metals across the study sites. Strong correlation among the metals signified common contamination sources. Cluster analysis produced two major groups: A (Fe and Cu) and B (Zn, Mn and Pb) which is subdivided into two sub-groups viz: Bi (Zn and Mn) and Bii (Pb), indicating similar chemical properties/or sources. The results of the T–test indicated that there were significant differences between the concentrations of the metals in contaminated and control soils. The chemical pools of the metals indicated that the metals were distributed into six fractions with most of the metals residing in the non-residual fractions, suggesting how readily the metals are released into the environment.
Festus Mayowa Adebiyi,
Abiodun Odunlami Adegunwa,
Odunayo Timothy Ore,
Godswill Ehimengbale Akhigbe,
Chemical Speciation, Bioavailability and Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Metals in Highway Dusts as Indicators of Highway Pollution, Modern Chemistry.
Vol. 7, No. 2,
2019, pp. 30-37.
Fakayode, S. O. and Olu-Owolabi, B. I. 2003. Heavy metal contamination of roadside topsoil in Oshogbo, Nigeria, its relationship to traffic density and proximity to highways. Environmental Geology 44; 150-157.
Geneva 1995. Air quality–Particle Size Fraction Definitions for Health-related Sampling ISO Standard 7708 International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Al-Khashman, O. A. 2004. Heavy metal distribution in dust, street dust and soils from the work place in Karak Industrial Estate, Jordan. Journal of Atmospheric Environment. 38, 6803-6812.
Willers, S., Gerhardsson, L. and Lundh, T. 2005. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children with asthma-relation between lead and cadmium, and nicotine concentrations in urine. Respiratory Medicine. 99: 1521–1527.
Inyang, H. I. and Bae, S. 2006. Impacts of dust on environmental systems and human health. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 132: 5–6.
Yuan C., Shi J., He B., Liu J., Liang L. and Jiang G. 2004. Speciation of heavy metals in marine sediments from the east China Sea by ICP-MS with sequential extraction, Environment International. 30: 769-783. Ahumadu, I., Mendoza, J. and Aser, L. 1999. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in soils irrigated with waste water common soil. Soil science and Plant Analysis. 30; 1507-1519.
Da silva F. S., Moura A. M., Queiroz H. A., Ardisson, D. J. 2018. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of tourmalines from the Mata Azul pegmatitic field, Central Brazil. Journal of GeoSciences. 63 (2): 155-165. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3190/jgeosci.258.
Kabala, C. and Singh, B. R. 2001. Fractionation and mobility of copper, lead, and zinc in soil profiles in the vicinity of a copper smelter. Journal of Environmental Quality. 30: 485–492.
Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G. C. and Bisson, M. 1979. Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analytical Chemistry. 51, 844-851.
Salbu, B., Krekling, T. and Oughton, D. H. 1998. Characterization of radioactive particles in the environment. Analyst, 123: 843-849.
Buccolieri, A., Buccolieri, G. and Cardellicchio, N. 2006. Heavy Metals in Marine Sediments of Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy). Marine chemistry. 99: 227-235.
Abrahim, G. M. S. and Parker, P. J. 2008. Assessment of heavy metal enrichment factors and the degree of contamination in marine sediments from Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 136, No. 1-3, 227–238
Duodu, G. O., Goonetilleke, A., Ayoko, G. A., 2016. Comparison of pollution indices for the assessment of heavy metal in Brisbane River sediment. Environmental Pollution. 219, 1077-1091.
Oyewole, F. G. and Adebiyi, F. M. 2017. Total and speciation analyses of heavy metals in the sand fraction of Nigerian oil sands for human and ecological risk assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. 23 (8): 2046-2068.
Bai, J., Cui, B., Wang, Q., Ga, H. and Ding, Q. 2008. Assessment of heavy metal contamination of roadside soils in Southwest China Stoch. Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. DOI 10.1007/s00477-008-0219-5.
Bhattacharya, T., Chakraborty, S., Fadadu, B. and Bhattacharya, P. 2011. Heavy metal concentration in street and Leaf deposited dust in Anand City, India, Journal of Chemical Sciences. Vol. 1 (5), 61-66.
WHO 2007. Joint FAO/WHO, Expert standard programme codex Alimentation Commission. Geneva, Switzerland.
Poggio, I., Vrscaj, B., Schulm, R. Heperle, E. and Ajamon-Marsan, F. 2009. Metal pollution and human Bioavailability of topsoil in Grugliasco (Italy) Journal of Environmental Pollution. 2: 680-689 doi: 10.1016/S0048-9697(99)0026-1.
Lu, X., Lee, S., Wong, S., Shi, W. and Thornton, I. 2009. Contamination Assessment of zinc, lead, manganese, copper and nickel in street dust of Baoji, NW China. Journal of hazardous materials 161, 1058-1062.
Kuo, C., Wang, J., Chang, S. and Chen, M. 2009. Study of metal concentrations in the environment near diesel transport routes. Atmospheric Environment. 43: 3070–3076.
Mmolawa, K. B., Likuku, A. S. and Gaboutloeloe, G. K. 2010. Reconnaissance of heavy metal distribution and enrichment around Botswana. Fifth International Conference Environmental Science & Technology, Houston, Texas USA July 12-16.
Adebiyi, F. M., Asubiojo, I. O. and Ajayi, T. R. 2008. Elemental characterization of Nigerian oil sands by TXRF spectrometry. Petroleum Science and Technology. 25 (1), 29–39.
Banerjee, A. D. K. 2003. Heavy metal levels and solid phase speciation in street dusts of Delhi, India. Environmental Pollution. 23, 95-105.
Fergusson, J. E. and Kim, N. D. 1991. Trace elements in street and house dusts: sources and speciation. Science of the Total Environment. 100, 125-150.
Li, X., Poon, C. S. and Liu, P. S. 2001. Heavy metal contamination of urban soils and street dusts in Hong Kong. Applied Geochemistry. 16, 1361-1368.
Tokalioglu, S. and Kartal, S. 2006. Multivariate analysis of the data and speciation of heavy metals in street dust samples from the Organized Industrial District in Kayseri (Turkey). Atmospheric Environment. 40, 2797-2805.
Fergusson, J. E. and Ryan, D. E. 1984. The elemental composition of street dust from large and small urban areas related to city type, source and particle size. Science of the Total Environment. 34, 101-116.
Rath, P., Panda, U. C., Bhatta, D. and Sahu, K. C. 2009. Use of sequential leaching, mineralogy, morphology and multivariate statistical technique for quantifying metal pollution in highly polluted aquatic sediments–a case study: Brahmani and Nandira Rivers, India. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 163, 632-644.
Jiries, A. 2003. Vehicular Contamination of Dust in Amman, Jordan. Environmentalist, 23, 205-210.
Wei, B., Jiang, F., Li, X., Mu, S. 2010. Heavy metal induced ecological risk in the city of Urumqi, NW China. Environmental Monitoring Assessment. 160, 33-45.
Adamo, P., Dudka, S., Wilson, M. J. and McHardy, W. J. 1996. Chemical and mineralogical forms of Cu and Ni in contaminated soils from the Sudbury mining and smelting region, Canada. Journal of Environmental Pollution. 91, 11-19.
Pickering, W. F. 1986. Metal ion speciation - soils and sediments (a review). Ore Geology Reviews, 1, 83-146.
Singh, K. P., Mohan, D., Singh, V. K. and Malik, A. 2005. Studies on distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in Gomti river sediements-a tributary of the Ganges, India Journal of Hydrology. 312: 14-27.
McAlister, J. J., Smith, B. J. and Torok, A. 2006. Element partitioning and potential mobility within surface dusts on buildings in a polluted urban environment, Budapest. Atmospheric Environment. 40, 6780-6790.
Jain, C. K. 2004. Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of River Yamuna, India, Water Resources, 38: 569-578.
Ahumada, I., J. Mendoza, E. Navarrete and L. Ascar, 1999. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in soils irrigated with wastewater. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 30: 1507-1519.