Chemical Speciation, Bioavailability and Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Metals in Highway Dusts as Indicators of Highway Pollution
Modern Chemistry
Volume 7, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 30-37
Received: Aug. 11, 2019; Accepted: Aug. 29, 2019; Published: Sep. 17, 2019
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Festus Mayowa Adebiyi, Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Abiodun Odunlami Adegunwa, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria
Odunayo Timothy Ore, Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Godswill Ehimengbale Akhigbe, Department of Chemistry, McPherson University, Ajebo, Nigeria
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This paper investigated concentrations of heavy metals in roadside soil dusts collected along Ife-Ibadan highway in Osun state, Nigeria with the aim of assessing the impacts of vehicular emissions on the environments. The soil dusts were analyzed for total metal concentrations and speciation using Atomic absorption spectrophotometry followed by the evaluation of the metal bioavailability. Results of the total metal analysis indicated that the concentrations of the metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) were higher in the contaminated soils than control soils and their WHO maximum allowable limits. The pattern of the total mean concentrations of the metals is in the order: Fe > Cu > Mn > Zn > Pb. The contamination factors of the metals showed that the soils suffered contamination. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that differences existed significantly in the mean values for all the metals across the study sites. Strong correlation among the metals signified common contamination sources. Cluster analysis produced two major groups: A (Fe and Cu) and B (Zn, Mn and Pb) which is subdivided into two sub-groups viz: Bi (Zn and Mn) and Bii (Pb), indicating similar chemical properties/or sources. The results of the T–test indicated that there were significant differences between the concentrations of the metals in contaminated and control soils. The chemical pools of the metals indicated that the metals were distributed into six fractions with most of the metals residing in the non-residual fractions, suggesting how readily the metals are released into the environment.
AAS, Chemical Speciation, Contamination, Toxic Metals, Highway, Soil Dust
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Festus Mayowa Adebiyi, Abiodun Odunlami Adegunwa, Odunayo Timothy Ore, Godswill Ehimengbale Akhigbe, Chemical Speciation, Bioavailability and Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Metals in Highway Dusts as Indicators of Highway Pollution, Modern Chemistry. Vol. 7, No. 2, 2019, pp. 30-37. doi: 10.11648/
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