The objective of this study is to extract, screen, isolate, and characterize the chemical constituents of Tephrosia vogelii and Commiphora schimperi. In the course of this study the stem bark of T. vogelii and resin of C. schimperi were collected from Areka Agricultural Research institute, Wolaita Zone and Konso, Gamo Gofa Zone, respectively. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of T. vogelii revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Chromatographic separation of the methanolic crude extract of T. vogelii yielded the compound 8 (4, 5-dihydro-5, 5-dimethyl-4-oxofuran-3yl)-5-hydoxy-7-methoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chrome-4-one. The essential oil from the resin of C. schimperi was isolated by hydro-distillation and some of the components identified by means of GC and GC/MS analysis. The main components of the essential oil from C. schimperi were: α-pinene (73%) and β-pinene (17%). The resin was also subjected to extraction by petrol, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The components of C. schimperi were isolated using chromatographic techniques and attempts were made to identify the isolated substances. Analysis of the petrol extract of the resin of C. schimperi showed to be an excellent source of the industrially important fragrant compounds, α- and β-pinene. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by comparing IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR chromatographic data of the compounds with literature.
Tegene Tesfaye Tole,
Belay Akino Neme,
Chemical Studies of Tephrosia vogelii and Commiphora schimperi Occurring in Ethiopia, Modern Chemistry.
Vol. 7, No. 3,
2019, pp. 45-53.
Timothy, S. Y.; S. Adamu, W. Y. Nyandaiti, M. Y. Sugun, D. N. Bukbuk, C. H. Wazis, K. S. Gamaniel (2009). Nigerian Journal of Experimental and Applied Biology 2, 159-163.
Keba, M. (1996). The utilization of plant medicine for the treatment of the health problem, the case of Oromo District, Illubabor Zone, Western, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 10, 161-162.
Abbink, J. (1995). Medicinal and ritual plants of the Ethiopian Southwest. An account of recent research. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 3, 6-8.
Grundmann, O., J. I. Nakajima, S. Seo, V. Butterweck (2007). Anti-anxiety effects of Apocynum venetum L. In the elevated plus maze test. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 110, 406–411.
Tesfaye, S., A. T. Kaleb, G. Tsige (2006). Ethnobotanical and ethno pharmaceutical studies on medicinal plants of Chifra district, Afar region, North-Eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethiopian Pharmacy Association 24, 45-58.
Cunningham. A. B. (1997). African Medicinal Plants: Setting Priorities at the Interface between Conservation and Primary Healthcare People Paris. 3: 87-58.
Saleh, H., J. Azizo, H. Ahmad, A. Raham (2015). The Application of Medicinal Plants in Traditional and Modern Medicine: A Review of Thymus vulgaris. International Journal of Clinical Medicine 6, 635-642.
Willis, J. C. (1973). The Dictionary of Flowering Plants and Ferns. 8th Ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp: 351-762.
Qureshi, R., G. R. Bhatti, R. A. Memon (2010). Ethno medicinal uses of herbs from northern part of NARA desert, Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 839-851.
Nwude, N. (1997). Ethno veterinary pharmacology and ethno veterinary practices in Nigeria; an overview. Tropical Veterinarian 15, 117-123.
Klaassen, C. D. (1996). Non metallic environmental toxicants, Air pollutants, solvents, vapors and pesticides. Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 32: 121-232.
Burkill, H. M. (1995). Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa 3: 654-462.
Bossard, E. (1993). Angolan medicinal plants used also as pesticides and soaps. Journal of Ethnobotany and Pharmacology 40, 1-19.
Roark, R. C. (1937). Division of Insecticide Investigation E 402US Dept Agri. 5: 211-216.
Chiu, S. (1989). Recent advances in research on botanical insecticides in China. Symposium Series. American Chemical Society 387, 9-77.
Ogendo, J., A. Deng, S. Belmain, D. Walker, A. Musandu (2004). Effect of insecticidal plant materials, Lantana camara L. and Tephrosia vogelii Hook, on the quality parameters of stored maize grains. African Journal of Food Technology 1, 29-36.
Delobel, A., P. Malonga (1987). Insecticidal properties of six plant materials against Cary edonserratus. Journal of Stored Product Research 23, 173-176.
Burkill, H. (1995). Useful plants of west Tropical Africa Kew: Royal Botanical Garden. 3 (2): 426-432.
Chiu, S. (1989). Studies on plants as a source of insect growth regulator for crop protection. Journal of Entomology 107, 185-92.
Touqeer, S., M. A. Saeed, M. Ajaib (2013). A review on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of genus Tephrosia. Phytopharmacology 4, 598-637.
Kalume, M. K., B. Losson, L. Angenot, M. Tits, J. N. Wauters, M. Frederich, C. Saegerman (2012). Rotenoid content and in vitro acaricidal activity of Tephrosia vogelii leaf extract on the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Veterinary Parasitology 190, 204-209.
Chen, Y., Y. Yan, C. Goa, W. Cao, R. Huang (2014). Natural Products from the Genus Tephrosia. Molecules 19, 1432-1458.
Jacques, D. T., A. Safiou, H. Jedirfort, F. Souaibou (2015). In vitro effect of the ethanolic extract of Tephrosia vogelii on Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Aboney-calavi. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 5, 247-259.
Stevenson, P. C., G. C. Kite, G. P. Lewis, F. Forest, S. P. Nyirenda, S. R. Belmain, G. W. Sileshi, N. C. Veitch (2012). Distinct chemotypes of Tephrosia vogelii and implications for their use in pest control and soil enrichement. Phytochemistry 78, 135-146.
Mkenda, P. A., P. C. Stevenson, P. Ndakidemi, D. I. Farman, S. R. Belmain (2015). Contact and fumigant toxicity of five pesticidal plants against Callosobruchus maculates (coleopteran: Chrysomelidae) in stored cow pea (bigna unguiculata). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 35, 172-184.
Nailufar, N., D. Prijono (2017). Synergistic activity of Piper Aduncum fruit and Tephrosia vogelii leaf extracts against the cabbage head caterpillar, Crocidolamia Pavonana. Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences 23, 102-110.
Lina, E. C., D. Dang, S. Manuwoto, G. Syahbirin, D. Prijono (2015). Synergistic action of mixed extracts of Burea javanica (Simaroubaceae), Piper anducum (Piperaceae), and Tephrosia vogelii (Leguminosae) against cabbage head caterpillar, Crocidolomia pavonana. Journal of Biopesticiedes 6, 77-83.
Khalid, S. A. (1983). In "Chemistry and Chemical Taxonomy of the Rutales," Ed. Waterman, P. G. and Grundon, M. K., Academic Press, London, pp: 281-297.
Coppen, J. J. W. (1995). Non-wood forest products 1. Flavours and fragrances of plant origin, FAO, Rome, pp: 81-92.
Engler, A. (1931). In "Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien," Ed. Engler, A. and Prantl, K., Vol. 19a, Engelmann, Leipzig, pp: 405-456.
Vollesen, K. (1989). Burseraceae. In: Flora of Ethiopia. Ed. Hedberg, I. and Edwards, S., Vol. 3, The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, pp: 446.
Maradufu, A. (1982). Furanosesquiterpenoids of C. erythraea and C. myrrh. Phytochemistry 21, 677-680.
Holmes, E. M. (1913). The myrrh of commerce, ancient and modem pharmacist. Pharmaceutical Journal 37, 116-117.
Holmes, E. M. (1924). Opopanax. Perfumery and Essential Oil Record 15, 4-5.
Provan, G. J., P. G. Waterman, (1985). Picropolygamain: a new lignan from Commiphora incise resin. Planta Medica51, 271-272.
Tucker, A. O. (1986). Frankincense and myrrh. Economic Botany 40, 425-433.
Macht, D. L, H. F. Bryan (1935). A contribution to the pharmacology of myrrh, Krameria, and eriodictyon. American Journal of Pharmacy 107, 500-511.
Thulin, M., P. Claeson (1991). The botanical origin of scented myrrh (Bissabol or Habak Hadi). Economic Botany 45, 487-494.
Holmes, E. M. (1906). The identity of the myrrh tree. Pharmaceutical Journal 22, 254-257.
Tucholka, W. (1897). Beitragezur Kenntnisser Bissabol-myrrha. Thesis University of Zurich, Zurich.
Claeson, P., G. Samuelsson (1989). Screening of some Somalian medicinal plants for anti-diarrhoeal effects in mice. Phytotherapy Research 3, 180-183.
Ettre, L. S., W. H. McFadden (1969). Ancillary techniques of gas chromatography. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, pp: 146.
Abegaz, B., E. Dagne, C. Bates, and P. G. Waterman (1989). Monoterpene-rich resins from two Ethiopian species of Commiphora. Journal of Flavour and Fragrance 4, 99-101.
Brieskorn, C. H., P. Noble (1982). Inhaltsstoffe des etherischenoel der Myrrhe. Planta Medica 44, 87-92.
Guenther, E., 1944. A survey of oil of myrrh. American Perfumer 46, 43-44.
McDowell, P. G., W. Lwande, S. G. Deans, P. G. Waterman (1988). Volatile resin exudate from stem bark of Commiphora rostrata: Potential role in plant defense. Phytochemistry 27, 2519-2521.
Burchfield, H. P., E. E. Storrs (1962). Biochemical applications of gas chromatography, Academic press, New York and London, pp: 371-395.
Ganesh, S., J. Vennila (2011). Phytochemical Analysis of Acanthus ilicifolius and Avicennia officinalis By GC-MS. Research Journal of Phytochemistry 5, 60-65.
Prashant, T., K. Bimlesh, K. Mandeep, K. Gurpreet, K. Haleen (2011). Phytochemical screening and extraction. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia 1, 98-104.
Ali, K., M. Khalafalah, H. Afifi, M. Abeer, M. H. Esmail, M. E. F. Abdelrazik, A. E. Hagazy, H. M. Hamd (2010). Chemical constituent of Tephrosia purpurea. International Pharmacognosy Research 2, 72-75.
Inalegwu, B., O. A. Sodipo (2013). Phytochemical screening and hemolytic activities of crude and purified saponins of gaseous and methanolic extracts of leaves of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. F. Asian Journal of Plant Science Research 3, 7-11.
Tole, T. T., Y. T. Saifu (2019). Phytochemical investigation of Withania somnifera and Commiphora kataf. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 8, 2958-2964.
Shen, T., G. HuiLi, X. N. Wang, H. X. Lou (2012). The genus Commiphora: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 142, 319-330.
Paraskeva, M. P. (2007). A phytochemical and pharmacological study of ten Commiphora species indigenous to South Africa, An MSc dissertation, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of The Wiwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Formacek, V., K. H. Kubeczka (1982). Essential oils analysis by capillary gas chromatography and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. Britain, J. W. Arrowsmith Ltd., Bristol BS3NT, pp. 349.