Surface Engineering Effect on Optimizing Hydrogenation Timing of Green Hydrogenated Chitosan-Mediated CuO (H-Cht-CuO) for Cashew-kernel-oil Hydrogenation
Modern Chemistry
Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2019, Pages: 73-79
Received: Aug. 22, 2019; Accepted: Sep. 20, 2019; Published: Sep. 29, 2019
Views 30      Downloads 6
Joshua Lelesi Konne, Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Hamilton Amachree Akens, Department of Chemistry, Federal University, Otuoke, Nigeria
Arinze Amauche Uwaezuoke, Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Achu Golden Chiamaka, Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The effect of polycrystallite surface engineering on the time required to fully hydrogenate green chitosan-mediated CuO to form hydrogenated chitosan-mediated CuO (H-Cht-CuO) as well as the catalytic properties of both CuO and H-Cht-CuO have been investigated. The prepared chitosan mediated CuO was obtained from the reaction of copper (II) sulphatepentahydrate with green alkali (aqueous extract of ripe plantain peel ash) via sol-gel technique (chitosan-gel mediated) and heated at 550°C for 6 h. The resultant sample was divided into two portions. The first was used as the control experiment (0 min) while the second was hydrogenated at varying times of 2 to 8 mins to form the H-Cht-CuO samples. A second CuO (control) without chitosan was also synthesized for structural and surface morphological comparisons with the chitosan-mediated using the XRD and SEM techniques, respectively. The XRD reflections showed differences in peak intensities with the chitosan-mediated having broader peaks while its SEM pores were 8.5 times larger than those of CuO (non chitosan-mediated). UV-Vis analysis of the samples showed that the 2 mins H-Cht-CuO sample had the maximum absorptivity while CuO (control-chitosan mediated) had the least. Both samples were used as catalysts in the hydrogenation of Cashew kernel oil. The GC-MS results showed that the Oleic acid component was reduced from 84.36% to 0.06% and 0%, Linoleic acid from 8.68% to 3.63% and 0% with increase in Stearic acid (saturated C18) from 4.88% to 34.97% and 84.76% by the CuO and H-Cht-CuO, respectively.
Optimizing, Hydrogenation Timing, Chitosan-Mediated, Surface Engineering, Cashew-Kernel-Oil Hydrogenation
To cite this article
Joshua Lelesi Konne, Hamilton Amachree Akens, Arinze Amauche Uwaezuoke, Achu Golden Chiamaka, Surface Engineering Effect on Optimizing Hydrogenation Timing of Green Hydrogenated Chitosan-Mediated CuO (H-Cht-CuO) for Cashew-kernel-oil Hydrogenation, Modern Chemistry. Special Issue: Green Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials and Their Catalytic Applications. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp. 73-79. doi: 10.11648/
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Rosengaten, F. (1984). The Book of edible nuts, 5th edition, Walker and Co, New York, USA, pp: 45.
Akinwale, T. O. (2000). Cashew apple juice: Its use in fortifying the nutritional quality of some tropical fruits. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 211: 205-207.
Abitogun, A. S. and Borokini, F. B. (2009). Physiochemical parameters and fatty acid composition of cashew nut oil. Journal of Research in National Development, 7 (2).
Achal, (2002). Cashew: nutrition and medicinal value. Calarado State University. Pp. 159-165.
Ogunbenle, H. N. and Afolayan, M. F. (2015). Physical and chemical characterization of roasted cashew nut (Anacardiumoccidentale) flour and oil. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering. 5 (1): 1-7.
Winterhatter, P., Mearse, H., and Dekker, E. D. (1991). Fruits and Volatile Compounds of Food and Beverages. New York. Pp. 389-409
Emelike, N. J. T. and Ebere, C. O. (2015). Influence of Processing Methods on the Tannin Content and Quality Charactristics of Cashew By-Products. Agriculture and Food Sciences Research. 2 (2): 56-61.
Raheem, T., Oladele, E., and Amoo, I. (2015). Effect of roasting on some physiochemical and Antimicrobial properties of cashew nut (Anacardiumoccidentale) oil. International Journal of Science and Technology. 4 (12): 355-359.
Ojeh, O. (1985). Cashew kernel- Another locally available source of vegetable oil. Nigerian Agricultural journal. 19/20: 50-56.
Jovanovic, D. R., Radovic, L. M., Stankovic, M., and Markovic, B. (1998). Nickel hydrogenation catalyst for tallow hydrogenation and for the selective hydrogenation of sunflower seed oil and soybean oil. Catalysis Today. 43 (12): 21–28.
Fernadez, M. B., Tonetto, G. M., Crapiste, G. H., Ferreira, M. L., and Damiani, D. E. (2005). Hydrogenation of edible oil over Pd catalysts: a combined theoretical and experimental study. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A. 237 (1-2): 67-79.
Ravasio, N. F., Zaccheria, and Gargano, M. (2002). Environmental friendly lubricants through selective hydrogenation of rapeseed oil over supported copper catalysts. Applied Catalysis A. 233 (1-2): 1–6.
Nicoletta, R., Fedrica, Z., Michele, G., Sandro, R., Achille, F., Nicola, P., and Rinaldo, P. (2002). Environmental friendly lubricants through selective hydrogenation of rapeseed oil over supported copper catalysts. Applied Catalysis A: General, 233 (1-2), 1-6.
Ermakova, M. A. and Ermakov, D. Y. (2003). High-loaded nickel-silica catalysts for hydrogenation, prepared by Sol-gel route: structure and catalytic behavior.” Applied Catalysis A. Vol245: 277-288.
Plourde, M., Belkacemi, K. and Arul, J. (2004). “Hydrogenation of sunflower oil with novel Pd Catalysts supported on structural silica,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 43 (10): 2382-2390.
Wright, A. T., Mihele, A. L., and Diosady, L. L. (2003). Cis selectivity of mixed catalyst systems in canola oil hydrogenation, Food Research International. 36 (8), pp: 797-804.
Yecheskel, Y., Dror, I., and Berkowitz, B. (2013). Chemosphere. 93, 172.
Kumar, V., Masudy-Panah, S., Tan, C., Wong, T. K. S., Chi, D. Z., and Dalapati, G. K. (2013). Copper oxide based low cost thin film solar cells, in Proceedings of the IEEE 5th International Nano-Electronics Conference (INEC’13). 443-445.
Dijksra, A. J. (2002). The mechanism of the copper catalyzed hydrogenation; a reinterpretation of published data. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 104 (1): 29-35.
Konne, J. L. and Arinze, A. U. (2019). Hydrogenation of cashew kernel oil using green synthesized CuO and CuO: H as catalyst. J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria, 44: 285-291.
Aslani, A. and Oroojpour, V. (2011). CO gas sensing of CuO nanostructures synthesized by an assisted solvothermal wet chemical route, Physica B. Condensed Matter. 406 (2): 144-149.
Wang, Y., Xu, X., Stephen, U.S and Choi, (1999). Thermal Conductivity of Nano Particle Fluid Mixture. Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer. 13 (4): 474-480.
Ishio, S., Narisawa, T., and Takahashi, S. (2012). L10FePt thin films with [0 0 1] crystalline growth fabricated by SiO2 addition-rapid thermal annealing and dot patterning of the films, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. 324 (3): 295-302.
Onubun, J. D., Konne, J. L. and Cookey, G. A. (2017). Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide and Hydrogenated Zinc Oxide Catalysts. Material Science: An Indian Journal, 15 (4): 122.
Chibor, B. S., Kiin-Kabari, D. B. and Eke-Ejiofor, J. (2018). Comparative Assessment of the Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profile of Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oil with some Commercial Vegetable Oils in Rivers State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Food and Nutrition, 2 (2): 32-40.
Konne, J. L., Davis, S. A., Glatzel, S., Lees, M. R. and Hall, S. R. (2012). A new stoichiometry of cuprate nanowires. Journal of Superconductor Science and Technology, 25: 115005-115011.
Faur, L. (1996). Margerine Technology. Oils and Fats Manual (Karleskind, A ed.), Vol. 2, Lovoisier Publishing, Paris. p. 951-962.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186