Experimental Investigation on Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of 2-Chlorobenzonitrile: Impact of Biofield Treatment
Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2015, Pages: 38-46
Received: Oct. 12, 2015;
Accepted: Oct. 21, 2015;
Published: Nov. 16, 2015
Views 5269 Downloads 103
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Alice Branton, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Dahryn Trivedi, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
Sambhu Charan Mondal, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2-chlorobenzonitrile (2-ClBN) is widely used in the manufacturing of azo dyes, pharmaceuticals, and as intermediate in various chemical reactions. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of 2-ClBN. 2-ClBN sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed a decrease in crystallite size in treated samples i.e. 4.88% in 2-ClBN along with the increase in peak intensity as compared to control. However, surface area analysis showed a decrease in surface area of 64.53% in treated 2-ClBN sample as compared to the control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed a significant increase in the latent heat of fusion (28.74%) and a slight increase in melting temperature (2.05%) in treated sample as compared to the control. Moreover, TGA/DTG studies showed that the control and treated 2-ClBN samples lost 61.05% and 46.15% of their weight, respectively. The FT-IR spectra did not show any significant change in treated 2-ClBN sample as compared to control. However, UV-Vis spectra showed an increase in the intensity of peak as compared to control sample. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of 2-ClBN, which could make them more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi,
Sambhu Charan Mondal,
Experimental Investigation on Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of 2-Chlorobenzonitrile: Impact of Biofield Treatment, Modern Chemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2015, pp. 38-46.
Maki T, Takeda K (2002) Benzoic acid and derivatives. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
Schareina T, Zapf A, Beller M (2004) Improving palladium-catalyzed cyanation of aryl halides: development of a state-of-the-art methodology using potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) as cyanating agent. J Organomet Chem 689: 4576-4583.
Kumar V, Panikar Y, Palafox MA, Vats JK, Kostova I, et al. (2010) Ab-initio calculations, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-chloro-6-methyl benzonitrile. Indian J Pure Ap Phy 48: 85-94.
Schormann N, Velu SE, Murugesan S, Senkovich O, Walker K, et al. (2010) Synthesis and characterization of potent inhibitors of trypanosoma cruzi dihydrofolate reductase. Bioorg Med Chem 18: 4056-4066.
Estrada AA, Liu X, Baker-Glenn C, Beresford A, Burdick DJ, et al. (2012) Discovery of highly potent, selective, and brain-penetrable leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) small molecule inhibitors. J Med Chem 55: 9416-9433.
Doucet-Personeni C, Bentley PD, Fletcher RJ, Kinkaid A, Kryger G, et al. (2001) A structure-based design approach to the development of novel, reversible AChE inhibitors. J Med Chem 44: 3203-3215.
Barta TE, Veal JM, Rice JW, Partridge JM, Fadden RP, et al (2008) Discovery of benzamide tetrahydro-4H-carbazol-4-ones as novel small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18: 3517-3521.
Sweeney ZK, Harris SF, Arora SF, Javanbakht H, Li Y, et al (2008) Design of annulated pyrazoles as inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. J Med Chem 51: 7449-7458.
Ozdemir I, Gurbuz N, Kaloglu N, Dogan O, Kaloglu M, et al. (2013) N-Heterocyclic carbene–palladium catalysts for the direct arylation of pyrrole derivatives with aryl chlorides. Beilstein J Org Chem 9: 303-312.
Heilman WP, Battershell RD, Pyne WJ, Goble PH, Magee TA (1978) Synthesis and antiinflammatory evaluation of substituted isophthalonitriles, trimesonitriles, benzonitriles, and terephthalonitriles. J Med Chem 21: 906-913.
Blessy M, Patel RD, Prajapati PN, Agrawal YK (2014) Development of forced degradation and stability indicating studies of drugs-A review. J Pharm Anal 4: 159-165.
Panyachariwat N, Steckel H (2014) Stability of urea in solution and pharmaceutical preparations. J Cosmet Sci 65: 187-195.
Planck M (1903) Treatise on thermodynamics. (3rdedn), english translated by Alexander OGG, Longmans, Green, London (UK).
Einstein A (1905) Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content? Ann Phys 18: 639-641.
Rivera-Ruiz M, Cajavilca C, Varon J (2008) Einthoven's string galvanometer: The first electrocardiograph. Tex Heart Inst J 35: 174-178.
Rubik B (2002) The biofield hypothesis: Its biophysical basis and role in medicine. J Altern Complement Med 8: 703-717.
Garland SN, Valentine D, Desai K, Langer C, Evans T, et al. (2013) Complementary and alternative medicine use and benefit finding among cancer patients. J Altern Complement Med 19: 876-881.
Giasson M, Bouchard L (1998) Effect of therapeutic touch on the well-being of persons with terminal cancer. J Holist Nurs 16: 383-398.
Peck SD (1998) The efficacy of therapeutic touch for improving functional ability in elders with degenerative arthritis. Nurs Sci Q 11: 123-132.
Turner JG, Clark AJ, Gauthier DK, Williams M (1998) The effect of therapeutic touch on pain and anxiety in burn patients. J Adv Nurs 28: 10-20.
Trivedi MK, Bhardwaj Y, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bulbule, A (2009) Impact of an external energy on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC-51299] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions-an experimental study. J Accord Integr Med 5: 119-130.
Trivedi MK, Patil S (2008) Impact of an external energy on Staphylococcus epidermis [ATCC-13518] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions-an experimental study. J Accord Integr Med 4: 230-235.
Trivedi MK, Patil S (2008) Impact of an external energy on Yersinia enterocolitica [ATCC-23715] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions: An experimental study. Internet J Alternat Med 6: 13.
Shinde V, Sances F, Patil S, Spence A (2012) Impact of biofield treatment on growth and yield of lettuce and tomato. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6: 100-105.
Sances F, Flora E, Patil S, Spence A, Shinde V (2013) Impact of biofield treatment on ginseng and organic blueberry yield. Agrivita J Agric Sci 35: 22-29.
Lenssen AW (2013) Biofield and fungicide seed treatment influences on soybean productivity, seed quality and weed community. Agricultural Journal 8: 138-143.
Nayak G, Altekar N (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on plant growth and adaptation. J Environ Health Sci 1: 1-9.
Patil SA, Nayak GB, Barve SS, Tembe RP, Khan RR (2012) Impact of biofield treatment on growth and anatomical characteristics of Pogostemon cablin (Benth.). Biotechnology 11: 154-162.
Trivedi MK, Tallapragada RR (2008) A transcendental to changing metal powder characteristics. Met Powder Rep 63: 22-28.
Dabhade VV, Tallapragada RR, Trivedi MK (2009) Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth powders. Bull Mater Sci 32: 471-479.
Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O (2015) Studies of the atomic and crystalline characteristics of ceramic oxide nano powders after bio field treatment. Ind Eng Manage 4: 161.
Pavia DL, Lampman GM, Kriz GS (2001) Introduction to spectroscopy. (3rdedn), Thomson Learning, Singapore.
Britton D (2007) o-Chloro- and o-bromobenzo-nitrile: Pseudosymmetry and pseudo-isostructural packing. Acta Crystallogr C 63: o14-o16.
Rocha IM, Galvao TLP, Ribeiro da Silva MDMC, Ribeiro da Silva MAV (2014) Thermodynamic study of chlorobenzonitrile isomers: A survey on the polymorphism, pseudosymmetry, and the chloro•••cyano interaction. J Phys Chem 118: 1502-1510.
Chaudhary AL, Sheppard DA, Paskevicius M, Pistidda C, Dornheim M, et al. (2015) Reaction kinetic behaviour with relation to crystallite/grain size dependency in the Mg–Si–H system. Acta Mater 95: 244-253.
Murray HH, Lyons SC (1960) Further correlation of kaolinite crystallinity with chemical and physical properties. Clays Clay Miner 8: 11-17.
Moore J (2010) Chemistry: The molecular science. (4thedn), Brooks Cole, Belmont, U.S.
Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of silicon, tin and lead powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125.
Krishnan AR, Saleem H, Subashchandrabose S, Sundaraganesan N, Sebastain S (2011) Molecular structure, vibrational spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), UV and NBO analysis of 2-chlorobenzonitrile by density functional method. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 78: 582-589.
Forbes WF, Templeton JF (1958) The study of hydrogen bonding and related phenomena by ultraviolet light absorption. Can J Chem 36: 180-188.