American Journal of Modern Physics
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2013, Pages: 185-189
Received: May 7, 2013;
Published: Jun. 10, 2013
Views 2749 Downloads 109
Alexander L Shimkevich, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, 1, Kurchatov Sq., Moscow, 123182, Russia
Studying electron properties of liquid water in the frame of band theory shows that obtaining its non-stoichiometric state is a simple way to vary physical and chemical properties, and changing a Reduction–Oxidation (RedOx) potential of any aqueous solution. In this connection, Fermi level in the band gap, as a measurable characteristic of non-stoichiometric liquid water, is the most convenient energy for monitoring and managing its RedOx potential. The hypo-stoichiometric state, H2O1–z, of liquid water is realized when the position of Fermi level is shifted to the bottom of conduction band. This state can be fixed by micro emulsifying gaseous hydrogen in liquid water or by electro-reducing the alkaline solution (catholyte) with possible forming alkaline (A) nanohydrides (AHH2O) n. As strong reducers, they can be quasi-stable in the aqueous solution and be an effective means for holding the negative RedOx potential of liquid water.
Alexander L Shimkevich,
On Arising Nanohydrides in Reduced Alkaline Solution, American Journal of Modern Physics.
Vol. 2, No. 4,
2013, pp. 185-189.
Ph. Wernet et al., Science, vol. 304, p. 995, 2004.
T. Tokushima et al., "High resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy of liquid water: the observation of two structural motifs", Chem. Phys. Letters, vol. 460, p. 387, 2008.
P.N. Alekseev, Yu.M. Semchenkov, A.L. Shimkevich, "Aqueous nanofluid as a two-phase coolant for PWR", Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, Article ID 214381, 6 pages, 2012, doi: 10.1155/2012/214381.
A.L. Shimkevich and I.Yu. Shimkevich, "On 2D water chemistry", in Proceedings of Nuclear Plant Chemistry Conference (NPC-2012), Paper # P1-39-176, 2012.
G. Galli, Electronic properties of water, University of California, Davis, http://angstrom.ucdavis.edu.
M. Chaplin, Ionization of water, London: South Bank University, 2008.
Ch. Kittel, H. Kroemer, Thermal physics, 2nd ed., San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1980. ISBN 978-0-7167-1088-2.
W.M. Clark, The determination of hydrogen ions, 2nd ed., Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co. USA, 1927.
G.R. Buettner, F.Q. Schafer, "Free radicals, oxidants, and antioxidants", Teratology, vol. 62, p. 234, 2000.
M. Chen et al., "Synthesis and self-organization of soluble monodisperse palladium nanoclusters", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 287, p. 146, 2005.