Measurements of Indoor Radon Levels and Dose Estimation and Lung Cancer Risk Determination for Workers in Health Centres of Some Towns in the Sudan
The indoor radon concentration level and radon effective dose rate were carried out in the health centers of Khartoum, Behri(Khartoum North), Medani and Kassala towns – Sudan, in 222 measurements, using passive integrated solid-state nuclear track devices containing allyl diglycol carbonate plastic detectors. The radon concentration in the corresponding health centers was found to vary from 60 ± 12 Bq.m-3, in Kassala town health centers, and 34 ± 9 Bq.m-3 in Wad Medani town health centers, while Khartoum and Behri (Khartoum North) health centers are recording an average values of 49 ± 12 Bq.m-3 to 46 ± 11 Bq.m-3, respectively. The overall average of radon concentration for health centers in our study was found to be 47 ± 11 Bq.m-3. These values are noticed to be far below than the radon action level 200- 600 Bq.m-3 as recommended by ICRP. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, we found that the annual effective dose rate from radon was estimated to be 1.19 ± 0.28 mSv.y-1, and the relative lung cancer risk for radon exposure was found to be 1.042%. From our study, it is clear that the annual effective dose rate is lower than both the “normal” back ground level as quoted by UNSCEAR and the recommended action level of ICRP, and less than the maximum permissible dose defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency.
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain,
Measurements of Indoor Radon Levels and Dose Estimation and Lung Cancer Risk Determination for Workers in Health Centres of Some Towns in the Sudan, American Journal of Modern Physics.
Vol. 5, No. 4,
2016, pp. 51-57.
UNSCEAR, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiations, "Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Vol. I Annex A: Dose Assessment Methodologies", United Nations, New York, 2000.
ICRP, International Commission on Radiological Protection, "ICRP 65: Protection Against Radon-222 at Home and at Work", ICRP 23. Pergamon Press, (1993), Oxford, 1993.
ICRP, International Commission on Radiological Protection, "ICRP Draft Report for Consultation: Radiological Protection against Radon Exposure", Pergamon Press, (2011), Oxford, 2011.
US-EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Radionuclides"; Final Rule. 65, 236, (2000), Washington, DC, 2000.
WHO, World Health Organization, "Handbook on Indoor Radon: A Public Health Perspective", WHO Press, (2009), Geneva, 2009.
NCRP, "Evaluation of Occupational and Environmental Exposures to Radon and Radon Daughters in the United States", NCRP, Report No. 78., (1984), UK, 1984.
IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency, "Radiation Protection Against Radon in Workplaces Other than Mines", Safety Reports Series 33, (2003), Vienna, 2003.
ICRP, International Commission on Radiological Protection, "Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection", ICRP 60, Pergamon Press, (1991), Oxford, 1991.
NRPB, National Radiological Protection Board, "Available at (www.nrpb.org), (2009), Accessed March2009.
UNSCEAR, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiations, United Nations, New York, 1993.
F. Abu-Jarad, "Application of Nuclear Track Etch Detector for Radon Related Measurements", Nucl. Track Radiat. Meas. J., (1988), 15, pp. 525-534.
H. W. Alter and P. B. Price "Radon Detection Using Track Registration Material", US Patent, (1972), 3, pp. 665, 194 Terradex Corp, 1972.
B. Al-Bataina, and Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain "Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon-222 Concentration Levels in Zarqa City, Jordan". Abhath Al-Yarmouk “Basic Sci. & Eng.” (2003), 12(1), pp. 191-202.
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain and A. K. Sam, "Sudan Report to the Third Co-Ordination Meeting of the Project on: Measurement of indoor Radon Concentration in some Cities in Arab countries." Arab Atomic Energy Agency - Egyptian Atomic Energy Agency, (2005), Egypt, Cairo, 22-23/11/2005.
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "A Study of Indoor Radon Levels and Radon Effective Dose in Dwellings of Some Cities of Gezira State in Sudan", Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, (2014), 29(4), pp. 307-312.
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Assessment of Indoor Radon Doses Received by the Students and Staff in Schools in Some Towns in Sudan", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), (2015), 4(1), pp. 2566-2571.
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Dose Assessment to Inhalation Exposure of Indoor Radon in Sudan using SSNTDS", in The 4th International Conference On Radiation and Applications in Various Fields of Research - RAD 2016, Faculty of Electronic Engineering – Nis – Serbia (2016), 23-27 May, 2016.
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Seasonal Variation of Radon - 222 Concentration in Shops and Pharmacies of Alzarqa Town- Jordan", In Proceedings of the 2011 International AASRT Symposium, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A., (2011), 2, pp. 38-45.
J. J. Llerena, D. Cortina, I. Durán, R. Sorribas, "222Rn Concentration in Public Secondary Schools in Galicia (Spain)", J. Environ. Radioact., (2010), 101, pp. 931-936.
M. Rafique, S. U. Rahman, S. Rahman, M. Matiullah, I. Shahzad, N. Ahmed, J. Iqbal, B. Ahmed, T. Ahmed, N. Akhtar, "Assessment of Indoor Radon Doses Received by the Students in the Azad Kashmir Schools, Pakistan. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., (2010), 142, pp. 339-346.
A. Clouvas, S. Xanthos, M. Antonopoulos-Domis, "Pilot Study of Indoor Radon in Greek Workplaces", Radiat. Prot. Dosim., (2007), 124, pp. 68-74.
C. A. Papachristodoulou, D. L. Patiris, K. G. Ioannides, "Exposure to Indoor Radon and Natural Gamma Radiation in Public Workplaces in North-Western Greece", Radiat. Meas., (2010), 45, pp. 865-871.
L. Thinova, K. Rovenska, "Radon Dose Calculation Methodology for Underground Workers in the Czech Republic", Radiat. Prot. Dosim., (2011), 145, pp. 233-237.
J. Vaupotic, "Comparison of Various Methods of Estimation Radon Dose at Underground Workplaces in Wineries", Radiat. Environ. Biophys., (2008), 47, pp. 527-534.
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Indoor Radon Levels in Different Types of Rooms and Building Materials.", in The 2nd International Conference On Radon in the Environment 2015, Krakow, Jordan Congress Bureau, Galaxy Hotel, POLAND, (2015), 25-29 May, 2015.
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, A. K. Sam, O. M. Mukhtar, M. A. Abbasher, "A Survey of Indoor Radon - 222 Concentration Measurements in Kassala Town", Gezira Journal of Engineering & Applied Sciences, (2008), 3(2), pp. 72-100.
O. M. Mukhtar, Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Radon Mmonitoring at Khartoum Using the Charcoal Technique", Abhath Al-Yrmouk “Basic Sci. &Eng.”. (2006), 15(2), pp. 225–235.
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Indoor Radon - 222 Concentrations in Some Cities in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan", In Proceedings of the 2011 International AASRT Symposium, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A., (2011), (2), pp. 71-84.
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Radon Exhalation Rates from Some Building Materials Used in Sudan" Indoor and Built Environment, (2015), 24(6), pp. 852-860.
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Estimation of Soil Gas Radon Concentration and the Effective Dose Rate by Using SSNTDs", International Journal of Science and Research Publications (IJSRP), (2015), 5(2); pp. 3887-3891.
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Indoor Radon Concentrations in Rufaa and Al-Hasahisa Towns in the Central Part of Sudan", in the 3rd International Conference On Radiation and Applications in Various Fields of Research - RAD 2015, Slovenska Plaza, Budva, Montenegro, (2015), 8-12 June, 2015.
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Radon in Workplaces in Khartoum town, Capital of Sudan", in The 3rd International Conference On Radiation and Applications in Various Fields of Research - RAD 2015, Slovenska Plaza, Budva, Montenegro, (2015), 8-12 June, 2015.
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, Y. Sh. Mohammed, Kh. Sh. Mohammed, S. M. Sumaia, "Radium and Radon Exhalation Studies in Some Soil Samples from Singa and Rabak Towns, Sudan using CR-39", International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), (2014), 3 (11), pp. 632-637.
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, A. K. Sam, O. M. Mukhtar and M. A Abbasher, "Measurements of Radon Gas Concentration in a Soil at Some Towns in Kassala State." Gezira Journal of Engineering & Applied Sciences, (2009), 4(1), pp. 15-42.
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Determination of Soil Gas Radon Concentration from Some Locations of Gedarif Town, Sudan by Using CR-39", in The 3rd International Conference in Energy Challenges and Mechanics (ECM3) - towards a big picture, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, (2015), 7–9, July, 2015.
Abd-Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Determination of Radium Concentration and Radon Exhalation Rate in Soil Samples Using CR-39", Advances in Applied Science Research, (2015) 6(2), pp. 92-102.
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, "Measurement of Radon-222 Concentration Levels in Water Samples in Sudan "Advances in Applied Science Research, (2014), 5(2), pp. 229-234.
Abd Elmoniem A. Elzain, "A Study on the Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Kassala State (Eastern Sudan) and the Associated Health Effects", World Applied Sciences Journal, (2014), 31(3), pp. 367-375.
Hajo Idriss, Isam Salih, Abdulaziz S Alaamer, M. Y. Abdelgali, Salih Ali Salih, Amna M. Hasan, Mohammed A. ELtahir, Mustafa M. O. Ahamed, "Characterization of Radon and Meteorological Parameters in Uro House at South Kordofan State", Indoor and Built Environment, (2014), DIO: 10.1177/1420326X14528190, 2014.
US-EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, "Why is Radon the Public Health Risk that it is?", http://www.epa.gov/radon/aboutus.html, (2014), Accessed 16 April 2014.
S. M. Farid, "Indoor Radon in Dwellings of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia, and Its Correlations with the Radium and Radon", Indoor and Built Environment, (2014), DOI: 10.1177/1420326X14536749, 2014.
NRPB, Statement by the National Radiological Protection, "Limitation of Human Exposure to Radon in Homes", Doc. NRPB 3, (1990), pp. 15–16.
J. H. Lubin, J. D. Boice, "Lung Cancer Risk from Residential Radon Meta-Analysis of Eight Epidemiology Studies", J. Nat. Cancer Institute, (1997), 89 (1), pp. 49-57.
F. Marcinowski, "Nationwide Survey of Residential Radon Levels in the US", Radiat. Prot. Dosim., (1992), 45(1-4), pp. 419-424.
K. Ulbak, B. Stenum, A. Sørensen, B. Majborn, L. Bøtter-Jensen and S.P. Nielsen, "Results From the Danish Indoor Radiation Survey", Radiat Prot Dosimetry, (1988), 24 (1-4), pp. 401-405.
M. Shakir Khan, et al., "The Study of Indoor Radon in the Urban Dwellings Using Plastic Track Detectors", Environmental Earth Sciences, (2011), 63 (2), pp. 279-282.
A. Canoba, et al., "Indoor Radon Measurements and Methodologies in Latin American Countries", Radiat. Meas., (2001), 34 (1-6), pp. 483-486
F. Bochicchio, et al., "Annual Average and Seasonal Variations of Residential Radon Concentration for all the Italian Regions", Radiation Measurements, (2005), 40 (2-6), pp. 686-694
S. A. A. Jasem, H. N. Aood, "Indoor Radon Levels and the Associated Effective Dose Rate Determination at the Shatt – Alarab District in the Basrah Governorate", IRAQ IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences (IMPACT: IJRANSS), (2014), 2(3), pp. 117-122.
M. Rafique, et al., "Estimation of Annual Effective Radon Doses and Risk of Lung Cancer in the Residents of District Bhimber, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan", Nucl Technol Radiat Protec., (2011), 26(3), pp. 218-225.
S. U. Rahman, Matiullah, J. Anwar, A. Jabbar and M. Rafique, "Indoor Radon Survey in 120 Schools Situated in Four Districts of the Punjab Province – Pakistan", Indoor Built Environ (2010),19(2), pp. 214–220.
O. Ennemoser, P. Schneider, W. Ambach, P. Brunner, "Increased Radon Concentrations in Classrooms Used for Pottery Workshops", Sci. Total Environ., (1992), 116, pp. 291–295.
J. Planini´c, T. Šmit, Z. Faj, B. Šuveljak, B. Vukovi´c, V. Radoli´c, "Radon in Schools and Dwellings of Osijek", J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., (1995), 191, pp. 45–51.
A. J. Siniscalchi, S. J. Tibbetts, X. Soto, R. C. Beakes,K. Van Der Leeden, M. A. Thomas, N. W. McHone, "Implication of Temporal Variations in Radon Exposure in Schools", Environ. Int., (1996), 22 (Suppl. 1), pp. 1015–1024.
H. Synnott, O. Hanley, D. Fenton, P. A. Colgan, "Radon in Irish Schools: the Results of a National Survey", J. Radiol. Prot., (2006), 26, pp. 85-96.