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A Theoretical Explanation on Gell-Mann-Nishijima Formula with Singular Number and the Establishment of Lepton Quantum Number Constrained Equation
American Journal of Modern Physics
Volume 9, Issue 6, November 2020, Pages: 84-90
Received: Nov. 11, 2020; Accepted: Dec. 1, 2020; Published: Dec. 8, 2020
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Hua Ma, College of Science, Air Force University of Engineering, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China
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In this paper, two fundamental problems of particle physics are studied theoretically. The first one is: to solve the problem of establishing general quantum number constrained equation, the symmetry transformation mechanism of charge eigenstates for elementary particles is adopted, and the general quantum number constrained equations are established, which are applicable to physical particles. For hadrons, an equation is completely consistent with Gell-Mann-Nishijima formula. For leptons, the lepton quantum numbers are exactly the solutions of an equation, which is just the lepton quantum number constrained equation. The second problem is: to solve the problem of understanding singularity and calculating singular numbers, a hypothesis that a composite particle may has virtual structure is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the singular particles must be composite particles, and have virtual structures. In a virtual structure, the particles and antiparticles of component particles can form particle-antiparticle pairs, which have great influence such as improving mass and changing life of composite particles. Therefore, the composite particle with particle-antiparticle pairs in its virtual structure is singular particle, and the singular number is the number of particle-antiparticle pairs. These two theoretical results are in good agreement with the already achieved experimental results of particle physics, can explain the related phenomena of physical particles from a deeper physical mechanism, and theoretically predict the existence of singular leptons and several new singular hadrons.
Particle Physics, Symmetric Transformation, Quantum Number, Elementary Particle, Singular Particle, Singular Number, Hadron, Lepton
To cite this article
Hua Ma, A Theoretical Explanation on Gell-Mann-Nishijima Formula with Singular Number and the Establishment of Lepton Quantum Number Constrained Equation, American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 9, No. 6, 2020, pp. 84-90. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20200906.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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