American Journal of Modern Physics
Volume 4, Issue 1-1, January 2015, Pages: 10-17
Received: Oct. 30, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 5, 2014;
Published: Dec. 26, 2014
Views 3605 Downloads 158
Shun-Jin Wang, Center for Theoretical Physics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China
Based on the vacuum microscopic quantum structure model: the planckon densely piled vacuum model and the principle of cosmology, with the Planck era as initial conditions, we have solved the Einstein-Friedmann equations to describe the evolution of the universe. The main results are: i) the solution of Einstein-Friedmann equations have yielded the observed result：the ratio of dark energy density to vacuum quantum fluctuation energy density ρde/ρvac ~ (tp/T0)2 ~ 10-122s (the Planck time tp = 10-43s and the universe age T0 = 1018s); ii) at the inflation time tinf = 10-35s, the calculated universe radiation energy density is ρ(tinf) ~ 10-16ρvac corresponding to the phase transition temperature Ec ~ 1015GeV consistent with the GUT theory; iii) the expanding universe with vacuum as its environment is a non-equilibrium open system constantly exchanging energy with vacuum; during its expansion, the planckons in the universe lose quantum fluctuation energy and create the cosmic expansion quanta-cosmons, the energy of the cosmons is the lost vacuum quantum fluctuation energy and contributes to the universe energy with the calculated value Ecosmos = 1022Msolarc2 (where Msolar is solar mass) consistent with astronomic data; iv) since all planckons in the vacuum of the expanding universe lose quantum fluctuation energy resulting in hole excitations as negative gravity energy and the lost energy of planckons is used to create cosmons which in turn convert into different kinds of universe energy, the negative gravity energy plus the positive universe energy is zero; v) the induced negative gravity potential and the gravity acceleration due to the creation of cosmons are derived with the nature of radially outwards repulsive force, indicating that the cosmon may be the candidate of the dark energy quantum; vi) both the initial solution (the Planck era solution or the planckon solution) and the infinite asymptotic solution of the Einstein-Friedmann equations are unstable: the former tends to expand and the latter tends to shrink, so that the Einstein-Friedman universe undergoes a cyclic evolution of successive expansion and shrinking.
Planckon Densely Piled Vacuum, American Journal of Modern Physics. Special Issue: New Science Light Path on Cosmological Dark Matters.
Vol. 4, No. 1-1,
2015, pp. 10-17.
A. G. Riess, et al, Supernova Search Team Collaboration, Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant, vol. 116. Astronomical Journal, 1998, pp.1009
S. Perlmutter, et al, Discovery of a supernova explosion at half the age of the universe, vol. 51 Nature, 1998, p.51; Measurements of Ω and Λ from 42 high-redshift supernovae, vol. 517, Astrophysical Journal, 1999, p.565; Discovery of a supernova explosion at half the age of the universe and its cosmological implications, astro-ph/9712212.
S. Dodelson, Modern Cosmology, Academic Press, 2003.
Q. L. Lu, Z. L. Chou, and H. Y. Guo, The kinematic effect in the classical domains and the red shift phenomena of extragalactic objects, vol. 23, Acta Physica (China), 1974, p. 225.
H. Y. Guo, C. G. Huang, Z. Xu, and B. Zhou, On Beltrami model of de sitter space-time, vol. A19, Modern Physics Letters, 2004, p.1701.
H. Y. Guo, C. G. Huang, Z. Xu, and B. Zhou, On special relativity with cosmological constant, vol. 331, Physics Letters A, 2004, p.1.
A. Guth, Inflationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems, vol. 23, Physical Reviews D, 1981, p. 347.
A. Lindle, A new inflationary universe scenario: A possible solution of the horizon, flatness, homogeneity, isotropy and primordial monopole problems, vol.108, Physics Letters B, 1982, p.389.
S. Weinberg, The cosmological constant problem, vol. 61, Reviews of Modern Physics, 1989, p.1.
S. J. Wang, i) Microscopic quantum structure of black hole and vacuum versus quantum statistical origin of gravity, arXiv:1212.5862v4[gr-qu], 2014; ii) Vacuum quantum fluctuation energy in expanding universe and dark energy, arXiv:1301.1291v4[physics.gen-ph], 2014.
A. Cohen, D. Kaplan, and A. Nelson, Effective Field Theory, Black Holes, and the Cosmological Constant, vol. 82, Physical Review Letters, 1999, p. 4971.
M. Li, A model of holographic dark energy, vol. 603, Physics Letters B, 2004, pp.1-5.