Experimental Confirmation of the Synthesis of Neutrons and Neutroids from a Hydrogen Gas
American Journal of Modern Physics
Volume 6, Issue 4-1, August 2017, Pages: 85-104
Received: Jun. 6, 2017;
Accepted: Jun. 8, 2017;
Published: Sep. 26, 2017
Views 1970 Downloads 97
Richard Norman, Research Department, Thunder Energies Corporation, Tarpon Springs, U.S.A.
Anil A. Bhalekar, Department of Chemistry, R. T. M. Nagpur University, Amravati Road Campus, Nagpur, India
Simone Beghella Bartoli, Research Department, Thunder Energies Corporation, Tarpon Springs, U.S.A.
Brian Buckley, Research Department, Thunder Energies Corporation, Tarpon Spring
Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Departments of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull, England
Jan Rak, Departments of Physics, The Renaissance University, Prague, Czech Republic
Ruggero M. Santilli, Research Department, Thunder Energies Corporation, Tarpon Spring
In this paper, we outline preceding mathematical, theoretical and experimental studies on the synthesis of neutrons from a hydrogen gas, and present additional systematic experimental confirmations via the use of three different neutron detectors. We also present experimental evidence of the existence of an intermediate bound state of a proton and an electron with spin zero known as the neutroid. A number of industrial applications currently under development by Thunder Energies Corporation are pointed out.
Anil A. Bhalekar,
Simone Beghella Bartoli,
Ruggero M. Santilli,
Experimental Confirmation of the Synthesis of Neutrons and Neutroids from a Hydrogen Gas, American Journal of Modern Physics. Special Issue: Issue III: Foundations of Hadronic Chemistry.
Vol. 6, No. 4-1,
2017, pp. 85-104.
H. Rutherford Proc. Roy. Soc. A 97, 374 (1920).
J. Chadwick Proc. Roy. Soc. A 136, 692 (1932).
E. Fermi Nuclear Physics, University of Chicago Press (1949).
R. Norman and J. Dunning-Davies, "Hadronic paradigm assessed: neutroid and neutron synthesis from an arc of current in hydrogen gas," Hadronic Journal V. 40, 119 - 140 (2017) http://santilli-foundation.org/docs/norman-dunning-davies-hj.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “On a possible Lie-admissible covering of Galilei’s relativity in Newtonian mechanics for nonconservative and Galilei form-non-invariant systems,” Hadronic J. Vol. 1, 223-423 (1978), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-58.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Need of subjecting to an experimental verification the validity within a hadron of Einstein special relativity and Pauli exclusion principle,” Hadronic J. Vol. 1, 574-901 (1978), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/santilli-73.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Foundation of Theoretical Mechanics, Volume I [3a] (1978) and II [3b]” (1982) Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-209.pdf http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/santilli-69.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Isonumbers and Genonumbers of Dimensions 1, 2, 4, 8, their Isoduals and Pseudoduals, and “Hidden Numbers,” of Dimension 3, 5, 6, 7,” Algebras, Groups and Geometries Vol. 10, 273 (1993) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-34.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Nonlocal-Integral Isotopies of Differential Calculus, Mechanics and Geometries,” in Isotopies of Contemporary Mathematical Structures, Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. Vol. 42, 7-82 (1996), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-37.pdf
D. S. Sourlas and G. T. Tsagas, Mathematical Foundation of the Lie-Santilli Theory, Ukraine Academy of Sciences (1993), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/santilli-70.pdf
Raul M. Falcon Ganfornina and Juan Nunez Valdes, “Fundamentos de la Isdotopia de Santilli,” International Academic Press (2001), http://www.i-b-r.org/docs/spanish.pdf, English translations Algebras, Groups and Geometries Vol. 32, pages 135-308 (2015), http://www.i-b-r.org/docs/Aversa-translation.pdf
Chun-Xuan Jiang, Foundations of Santilli Isonumber Theory, International Academic Press (2001), http://www.i-b-r.org/docs/jiang.pdf
S. Georgiev, “Foundations of the IsoDifferential Calculus, Volumes, I, II, III, IV, V, and VI” Nova Scientific Publisher (2015 on).
R. M. Santilli, “Relativistic hadronic mechanics: nonunitary, axiom-preserving completion of relativistic quantum mechanics,” Found. Phys. Vol. 27, 625-729 (1997) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-15.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Elements of Hadronic Mechanics, Vol. I and Vol. II (1995) [15b],” Academy of Sciences, Kiev, http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-300.pdf http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-301.pdf
R. M. Santilli, Hadronic Mathematics, Mechanics and Chemistry, Volumes I to V, International Academic Press, (2008), http://www.i-b-r.org/Hadronic-Mechanics.htm
R. M. Santilli, “Apparent consistency of Rutherford’s hypothesis on the neutron as a compressed hydrogen atom,” Hadronic J.13, 513 (1990). http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-21.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Apparent consistency of Rutherford’s hypothesis on the neutron structure via the hadronic generalization of quantum mechanics - I: Nonrelativistic treatment,” ICTP communication IC/91/47 (1992) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-150.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Recent theoretical and experimental evidence on the synthesis of the neutron,” Communication of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, No. E4-93-252 (1993).
R. M. Santilli, “Recent theoretical and experimental evidence on the synthesis of the neutron,” Chinese J. System Eng. and Electr. Vol. 6, 177 (1995), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-18.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Confirmation of Don Borghi’s experiment on the synthesis of neutrons,” arXiv publication, August 15, 2006 http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0608229v1.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Apparent confirmation of Don Borghi’s experiment on the laboratory synthesis of neutrons from protons and electrons,” Hadronic J. 30, 29 (2007) http://www.i-b-r.org/NeutronSynthesis.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “New structure model of hadrons, nuclei and molecules,” website http://www.neutronstructure.org “Confirmation of Don Borghi’s experiment on the synthesis of neutrons from protons and electrons” http://www.neutronstructure.org/neutron-synthesis.htm
R. M. Santilli and A. Nas, “Confirmation of the Laboratory Synthesis of Neutrons from a Hydrogen Gas,” Journal of Computational Methods in Sciences and Eng, 14 (2014) 40541 www.thunder-energies.com/docs/neutron-synthesis-2014.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “12 minutes Film on the Laboratory Synthesis of Neutrons from a Hydrogen Gas” www.world-lecture-series.org/newtron-synthesis-08-14
R. M. Santilli, “An introduction to new sciences for a new era.” (155 pages), in press at Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/new-sciences-new-era.pdf
(83) R. M. Santilli, “The Physics of New Clean Energies and Fuels According to Hadronic Mechanics,” Special volume of the Journal of New Energy, 318 pages (1998) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-114.pdf
V. Kadeisvili, “The Rutherford-Santilli Neutron,” Hadronic J. Vol. 31, Number 1, pages 1-125, 2008 http://www.i-b-r.org/Rutherford-Santilli-II.pdf also available in in html format at http://www.i-b-r.org/Rutherford-Santilli-neutron.htm
C. S. Burande, “Santilli Synthesis of the Neutron According to Hadronic Mechanics,” American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(2-1): 17-36 http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/pdf3.pdf
I. Gandzha and J. Kadeisvili, “New Sciences for a New Era: Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Discoveries of Ruggero Maria Santilli,” Sankata Printing Press, Nepal (2011) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/RMS.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “A quantitative isotopic representation of the deuteron magnetic moment,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium ’Dubna Deuteron-93, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia (1994), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-134.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Nuclear realization of hadronic mechanics and the exact representation of nuclear magnetic moments,” R. M. Santilli, Intern. J. of Phys. Vol. 4, 1-70 (1998) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-07.pdf
A. A. Bhalekar and R. M. Santilli, “Exact and Invariant Representation of Nuclear Magnetic Moments and Spins According to Hadronic Mechanics,” American Journal of Modern Physics, 2016; 5(2-1): 56-118 http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/nuclear-MM-spins.pdf
A. S. Muktibodh, "Studies on Santilli Three-Body Model of the Deuteron According to Hadronic Mechanics," American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(2-1): 17-36 http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/pdf4.pdf
R. M. Santilli. The novel “Controlled Intermediate Nuclear Fusion: A report on its industrial realization as predicted by hadronic mechanics,” Hadronic J. 31, 1, 2008 http://www.i-b-r.org/CNF-printed.pdf
R. Brenna, T. Kuliczkowski, L. Ying, “Verification of Santilli intermediate Controlled Nuclear Fusions without harmful radiations a and the production of magnecular clusters,” New Advances in Physics, 5, 9 (2011) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/ICNF-2.pdf
J. V. C. Lynch and Y. Yang, “Confirmations of Santilli Intermediate Nuclear Fusions of Deuteron and Carbon into Nitrogen without Radiations.” The Open Physical Chemistry Journal 5, 17 2013 http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/ICNF-Conf-2013.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Experimentally evidence on the synthesis of Silicon from Oxygen and Carbon without harmful radiation or waste,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Lie-Admissible Treatment of Irreversible Processes, Kathmandu University (2011) pages 163-177 http://www.santillifoundation.org/docs/ICNF-3.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Foundations of Hadronic Chemistry, with Applications to New Clean Energies and Fuels,” Kluwer Academic Publishers (2001), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-113.pdf Russian translation by A. K. Aringazin http://i-b-r.org/docs/Santilli-Hadronic-Chemistry.pdf
Table of Nuclides, website, http://atom.kaeri.re.kr:8080/ton/index.html
Tabulated data on neutron irradiation http://www4vip.inl.gov/gammaray/catalogs/pdf/gecat.pdf http://www4vip.inl.gov/gammaray/catalogs/pdf/naicat.pdf
Movie on operation fourth tests (Figure 16) http://thunder-energies.com/Mlovie0-fourth-tests.MOV
Movies on the tests with the Magna-Power Source (Figure 23): operation with the Magna Power http://thunder-energies.com/docs/MagnaPower.mp4; neutron counts per Seconds detected by the Ludlum detector model 375 http://thunder-energies.com/docs/Ludlum-Alarms.mp4; confirmation of such detection by the Berkeley Nucleonics SAM 04 http://thunder-energies.com/docs/Sam-Alarms.mp4; confirmation of such detection by the Berkeley Nucleonics SAM 04 http://thunder-energies.com/docs/Sam-Alarms.mp4; and confirmation of neutron detection by the Russian Polimaster PM1704 http://thunder-energies.com/docs/polimaster-reading.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “An intriguing legacy of Einstein, Fermi, Jordan and others: The possible invalidation of quark conjectures,” Found. Phys. Vol. 11, 384-472 (1981) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-36.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Appendix A: Antiprotons or pseudoprotons?” of the paper on antimatter, Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications Vol. 3, pages 1-26, 2014 (Cambridge, UK) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Antimatter-telescope-2013-final.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Apparent nuclear transmutations without neutron emission triggered by pseudoprotons,” American Journal of Modern Physics Vol. 4, p. 15-18 (2015) http://www.thunder-energies.com/docs/pseudoproton-2014.pdf
V.-Otto de Haan, “Possibilities for the detection of Santilli’s neutroids and pseudoprotons,” American Journal of Modern Physics, in press (2015) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Pseudo-proton-deHaan.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “Theoretical and experimental studies on pseudoprotons,” (to appear).
R. M. Santilli, Foundations of Hadronic Chemistry, with Applications to New Clean Energies and Fuels, Kluwer Academic Publishers (2001), http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-113.pdf Russian translation by A. K. Aringazin http://i-b-r.org/docs/Santilli-Hadronic-Chemistry.pdf
M. Tangde, “Advances in hadronic chemistry and its applications," Foundation of Chemistry, DOI 10.1007/s10698-015-9218-z (March 24, 2015) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/hadronic-chemistry-FC.pdf
A. A. Bhalekar and R. M. Santilli, "Two Body IsoElectronium Model of the Heliumic Systems," American Journal of Modern Physics, in press (2017), www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/122015007(4)=corr.pdf
R. M. Santilli, “The etherino and/or the Neutrino Hypothesis?” Found. Phys. 37, p. 670 (2007) www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/EtherinoFoundPhys.pdf
E. Recami, "Majorana, the neutron and the neutrino: some elementary historical memories," Hadronic Journal Vol. 40, 141 (2017), www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/MajoranaHistNotes-HJ-incompleteVersion.pdf