American Journal of Modern Physics
Volume 6, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 108-116
Received: Mar. 20, 2017;
Accepted: Apr. 19, 2017;
Published: Sep. 12, 2017
Views 1747 Downloads 52
Teka Tesfaye Mengesha, Rural Energy Engineering Case Team, Jimma Agricultural Engineering Research Center, Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Jimma, Ethiopia
Ancha Venkata Ramayya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jimma University Institute of Technology, Jimma, Ethiopia
For domestic energy – fuel sources biomass such as wood, animal dung and agricultural waste that are normally burned in traditional stove is used by the developing world. Diverse biomass resource is found in Ethiopia which can be used for energy through pyrolysis cook stove co-producing biochar. Specifically, coffee husks are the major solid residues from the handling and processing of coffee in the study area. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these Biochar producing pyrolysis cooking stove with respect to energy and emission. The selection of the stove design was made from both allothermal and autothermal type of pyrolysis cook stove. Both with and without biomass insertion was the experiment done for the allothermal stove design to understand the effect of the pyrolysis gas. The Water boiling test was used for the selected indirect and direct type stove design using wood and Corn cob respectively as fuel for testing stove efficiency. Both coffee husk and corncob as a biomass resource was used for generating pyrolysis gas and biochar using the selected indirect stove design. HOBO Carbon Monoxide Data logger and University of California Berkeley Particle Monitor device was used for measuring Carbon Monoxide and Particle Matter. The results from the water boiling test suggest that the indirect type stoves, without biomass insertion, average thermal efficiency was found between 15.86 to 18.6% during high power test and 20.02% average thermal efficiency was found for clay made stove during low power test. With biomass insertion corn cob and coffee husk the maximum average thermal efficiency is obtained during low power test using clay made stove 23.78% and 24.19% respectively. For direct type stoves the maximum and minimum thermal efficiency was found 34.11% for clay made stove and 20.4% for ELSA stove respectively during high power hot start phase.
Teka Tesfaye Mengesha,
Ancha Venkata Ramayya,
Performance Evaluation of Pyrolysis Cookstove Using Water Boiling Test, American Journal of Modern Physics.
Vol. 6, No. 5,
2017, pp. 108-116.
WHO. Household air pollution and health [Internet]. 2014. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs292/en/
Kishore VV. Thermochemical Conversion of biomass. Renewable Energy Engineering and Technology: Principles and Practice. TERI press; 2010. p. 697.
IBI. BIOCHAR STOVES [Internet]. 2014. Available from: http://www.biochar-international.org/technology/stoves
Whitman T, Nicholson CF, Torres D, Lehmann J. Climate change impact of biochar cook stoves in western Kenyan farm households: System dynamics model analysis. Environ. Sci. Technol. [Internet]. 2011;45(8):3687–3694. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446727
Birzer C, Medwell P, Wilkey J, West T, Higgins M, Macfarlane G, et al. An analysis of combustion from a top-lit up-draft (TLUD ) cookstove. Humanitarian Engineering. 2009; 2(1):1–8.
Torres-Rojas D, Lehmann J, Hobbs P, Joseph S, Neufeldt H. Biomass availability, energy consumption and biochar production in rural households of Western Kenya. Biomass and Bioenergy [Internet]. Elsevier Ltd; 2011;35(8):3537–3546. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0961953411002583
Finance M of, (MoFED) ED. Ethiopia: Building on Progress A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty; Ministry of Finance and Economic Development [Internet]. 2014. Available from: http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Policy-Documents/Plan_for_Accelerated_and_Sustained_(PASDEP)_final_July_2007_Volume_I_3.pdf
Kassa H, Suliman H, Workayew T. Evaluation of Composting Process and Quality of Compost from Coffee By-Products (Coffee Husk and Pulp). Environmental Studies and Management. 2011;4(4).
Kassa H, Workayehu T. Evaluation of some additives on coffee residue (coffee husk and pulp ) quality as compost, southern Ethiopia. Agricultural and Soil Science. 2014;2(2):14–21.
Seboka Y, Getahun MA, Haile-meskel Y. United Nations Development Programme Biomass Energy for Cement Production: Opportunities in Ethiopia [Internet]. 2009. Available from: http://www.environmentportal.in/files/Biomass energy for cement production.pdf
Berhanu A, Tesfaye G. The Prosopis Dilemma, Impacts On Dryland Biodiversity and Some Controlling Methods. The Drylands. 2006;1(2):158–164.
AGENCY CS. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency Agricultural Sample Survey Report On : Area and Production of Major Crops. 2013.
Guta DD. Assessment of Biomass Fuel Resource Potential And Utilization in Ethiopia : Sourcing Strategies for Renewable Energies. Renewable Energy Research. 2012;2(1).
Ojolo SJ, Abolarin SM, Adegbenro O. Development of a Laboratory Scale Updraft Gasifier. International Journal of Manufacturing Systems. 2012;2(2):21–42.
Mullen CA, Boateng AA, Goldberg NM, Lima IM, Laird DA, Hicks KB. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis. Biomass and Bioenergy [Internet]. 2010;3 4:67–74. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0961953409002037
Bulmau C, Marculescu C, Badea A, Apostol T. Pyrolysis Parameters Influencing the Bio-Char Generation from Wooden Biomass. U. P. B. Sci. Bull., Series C. 2010; 72(1):29–38.
tiptoPglobe.com. City (town) Jimma map, population, location [Internet]. 2014. Available from: http://www.tiptopglobe.com/city?n=Jimma&p=128330
Okafor IF, Unachukwu GO. Performance Evaluation of Nozzle Type Improved Wood Cook Stove. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 2013; 4(5):1195–1204.
Komolafe CA, Awogbemi O. Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of an Improved Charcoal Cooking Stove. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;11(2):51–58.
A. D. C, P. S. S, D. NR, D. VS. Design and Development of Household Gasifier cum Water Heater. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology. 2014; (3):208–212.
Luana Elis de Ramos e Paula, Paulo Fernando Trugilho, Alfredo Napoli, Maria Lúcia Bianchi. CHARACTERIZATION OF RESIDUES FROM PLANT BIOMASS FOR USE IN ENERGYGENERATION. Cerne, Lavras, v. 17, n. 2, p. 237-246, abr./jun. 2011
Panwar NL. Design and performance evaluation of energy efficient biomass gasifier based cookstove on multi fuels. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change [Internet]. 2009;14(7):627–633. Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11027-009-9187-4
Cynthia AA, Edwards RD, Johnson M, Zuk M, Rojas L, Jimenez RD, et al. Reduction in personal exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide as a result of the installation of a Patsari improved cook stove in Michoacan Mexico. Indoor air [Internet]. 2008; 18(2):93–105. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18333989
Joon V, Kumari H, Chandra A, Bhattacharya M. Predicting Exposure Levels of Respirable Particulate Matter ( PM2. 5 ) and Carbon monoxide for the Cook from Combustion of Cooking Fuels. International Conference on Chemistry and Chemical Process. 2011;10:229–232.
Mukhopadhyay R, Sambandam S, Pillarisetti A, Jack D, Mukhopadhyay K, Balakrishnan K, et al. Cooking practices, air quality, and the acceptability of advanced cookstoves in Haryana, India: an exploratory study to inform large-scale interventions. Global Health Action. 2012;5:1–13.
Chowdhury Z, Le LT, Masud AA, Chang KC, Alauddin M, Hossain M, et al. Quantification of Indoor Air Pollution from Using Cookstoves and Estimation of Its Health Effects on Adult Women in Northwest Bangladesh. Aerosol and Air Quality Research [Internet]. 2012;12:463–475. Available from: http://www.aaqr.org/Doi.php?id=2_AAQR-11-10-OA-0161&v=12&i=4&m=8&y=2012
Naeher LP, Smith KR, Leaderer BP, Mage D, Grajeda R. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and CO in high- and low-density Guatemalan villages. Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology [Internet]. 2000;10:544–551. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11140438