Please enter verification code
Confirm
Studies on the Synthesis of Silica Powder from Rice Husk Ash as Reinforcement Filler in Rubber Tire Tread Part: Replacement of Commercial Precipitated Silica
International Journal of Materials Science and Applications
Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2017, Pages: 37-44
Received: Nov. 30, 2016; Accepted: Dec. 26, 2016; Published: Jan. 18, 2017
Views 4678      Downloads 324
Authors
Addis Lemessa Jembere, Bahir Dar Institute of Technology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Solomon Workneh Fanta, Bahir Dar Institute of Technology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Rice husks, which can be considered as an agricultural waste, are produced every year in South Gonder, Ethiopia. Precipitated silica is commonly used as reinforcing filler in rubber industry, in the present study an effort has been attempted to replace commercial silica commonly used in natural rubber industries with rice husk ash silica (RHAS). Silica was extracted from RHA by using alkaline extraction followed by acid precipitation. The synthesized RHAS was characterized by AAS, BET, DSC, FTIR, and XRD. RHAS was then used as reinforcing filler in natural rubber. The curing characteristics of natural rubber products filled with RHAS resulted a smaller scorch time which caused a premature vulcanization than the commercial silica filled rubber composite. Overall mechanical properties like hardness, young’s modulus, abrasion resistance of rubber products reinforced with RHAS was better than commercial silica filled rubber composite.
Keywords
RHAS, RHA, Scorch Time, Composite, Reinforcement
To cite this article
Addis Lemessa Jembere, Solomon Workneh Fanta, Studies on the Synthesis of Silica Powder from Rice Husk Ash as Reinforcement Filler in Rubber Tire Tread Part: Replacement of Commercial Precipitated Silica, International Journal of Materials Science and Applications. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2017, pp. 37-44. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20170601.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Manufacture of Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals‐ Solids and Other Industry, 2006, European Commission.
[2]
Tires and passenger vehicle fuel economy: informing consumers, improving performance /Committee for the National Tire Efficiency Study, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D. C. 2006.
[3]
Africarice, A. R. C., Improving Access to Rice Seed and Building a Rice Data System for Sub‐Saharan Africa: Final Report of the Japan Emergency Project, J. E. Project, Editor 2010: Cotonou, Benin.
[4]
National Rice Development Strategy of Ethiopia, April 13‐‐17, 2009: Kampala Uganda.
[5]
W. T. Tsai, M. K. Lee, Y. M. Chang, “Fast pyrolysis of rice husk: Product yields and compositions,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 98, pp. 22–28, January 2007.
[6]
M. Patel, A. Karera, P. Prasanna “Effect of thermal and chemical treatments on carbon and silica contents in rice husk,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 22, pp. 2457–2464, July 1987.
[7]
Kamath, S. R., Proctor, A. “Silica gel from rice hull ash: preparation and characterization,” Cereal Chemistry, Vol.75, pp.484±487, 1998.
[8]
Mehta, P. K. “Rice husk ash—a unique supplementary cementing material,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advances in Concrete Technology, CANMET/ACI, Athens, Greece, pp. 407–430, 1992
[9]
Midhun Dominic C. D, P. M Sabura Begum, Rani Joseph, Daisy Joseph, Prabith Kumar and Ayswarya E. P “Synthesis, characterization and appilcation of ricehusk nanosilica in natural rubber,” International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, Vol. 2, pp.1027–1035, 2013.
[10]
V. P. Della, I. Kuhn, D. Hotza “Rice husk ash as an alternate source for active silica production,” Materials Letters, Vol. 57, pp. 818 – 821, December 2002.
[11]
V. R. Shelke, S. S. Bhagade, S. A. Mandavgane “Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash,” Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, Vol. 5 (2), pp. 63-67, 2010.
[12]
Ismail H and Mega L, “the effects of a compatibilizer and a silane coupling agent on the mechanical properties of white rice husk ash filled polypropylene/natural rubber blend,” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 463-478, 2001.
[13]
Sae-Oui, P., Rakdee, C. & Thanmathorn, “Use of rice husk ash as filler in natural rubber vulcanizates: In comparison with other commercial fillers,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol.83, pp. 2485-2493, 2002.
[14]
Pallavi Tiwari, Sanjay Choudhary, Manish Choudhary, “Study on Mechanical, Thermal and Morphological Properties of RHA Filled PVC Composite,” International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science (IJSEAS), Volume-1 (5), August 2015.
[15]
Nithi-uthai, P., “Chemicals for Rubber,” Faculty of Science, Prince Songkla University, 1981.
[16]
C. Pattamaprom, K. Bandidchutikun, S. Sotananan and S. Phrommedetch, “The effect of rubber modification on physical properties of rice husk ash composites,” Thammasat Int. J. Sc. Technol., Vol. 13, pp.36-43, 2008.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186