Potability of Groundwater in Itu Local Government Area, South-South of Nigeria
International Journal of Materials Science and Applications
Volume 6, Issue 3, May 2017, Pages: 126-135
Received: Mar. 16, 2017; Accepted: Apr. 11, 2017; Published: May 2, 2017
Views 2922      Downloads 165
Authors
Godwin Asukwo Ebong, Chemistry Department, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Helen Solomon Etuk, Chemistry Department, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Water samples were obtained from eight (8) different boreholes in Itu local government area, South-South of Nigeria. These samples were treated and analyzed using standard methods for their pH, temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) levels. Mean levels of all the parameters determined in studied groundwater were within their safe limits except lead and cadmium. This study revealed that concentrations of Pb and Cd rendered water from the studied boreholes unsafe for human consumption considering the toxic nature of these metals. Variable correlations were observed among the studied physicochemical properties of water. Pollution index analysis also confirmed the hazardous nature of lead and cadmium in groundwater from studied boreholes. Proper treatment of studied boreholes to eliminate these toxic metals has been recommended as prolong consumption of this untreated water may eventually result in health problems associated with pb and Cd toxicities.
Keywords
Groundwater, Itu Local Government, Water Pollution, Trace Metal and Nigeria
To cite this article
Godwin Asukwo Ebong, Helen Solomon Etuk, Potability of Groundwater in Itu Local Government Area, South-South of Nigeria, International Journal of Materials Science and Applications. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2017, pp. 126-135. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20170603.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
World Health Organization (WHO). Guideline for drinking water quality – 2nd Edition. 2004. Geneva, pp. 231 – 233.
[2]
Yadav, S. S. and R. Kumar. 2011. Monitoring water quality of Kosi River in Rampur District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2 (2): 197 – 201.
[3]
Faremi, A. Y. and O. B. Oloyede. 2010. Biochemical assessment of the effect of soap and detergent industrial effluents on some enzymes in the stomach of albino rats. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 4 (3): 127 – 133.
[4]
Foster, S. S. D. 2001. The interdependence of groundwater and urbanization in rapidly developing cities. Urban Water, 3: 209 – 215.
[5]
Lashkaripour, G. R. 2003. Contamination of groundwater resources in Zaheden City due to rapid development. Pakistan Journal of Applied Science, 3 (5): 341 – 345.
[6]
Pasquini, M. W. and M. J. Alexander. 2004. Chemical properties of urban waste ash produced by open burning on the Jos Plateau: Implication for agriculture. Science of the Total Environment, 319 1-3): 225 – 240.
[7]
Verplanck, P. I.; D. K. Nordstrom; G. S. Plumlee; R. B. Wanty; D. J. Bove and J. S. Caine. 2006. Hydrochemical controls on surface and groundwater chemistry in natural acidic porphyry-related mineralized areas, southern rocky mountains. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, 25: 231 – 241.
[8]
Hvitved-Jacobson, T. and Y. A. Yousef. Highways run off quality, environmental impacts and Control. In Highway Pollution, Elsevier, 1991. London. pp. 165 – 208.
[9]
UNESCO (2012). “United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization”. World’s groundwater resources are suffering from poor governance. UNESCO Natural Sciences Sector News. Paris, UNESCO, 2012.
[10]
World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for drinking water quality. 3rd Ed. WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland. 2006. p. 398.
[11]
Anwar, K. M. and V. Aggarwal. 2014. “Analysis of groundwater quality of Aligarh city, India: using water quality index”. Current World Environment, 9 (3): 841 – 857.
[12]
FGN (Federal Government of Nigeria). A report of water resources in Nigeria in the world water day. The Nation Newspaper, 2012. Abuja. Ferrier, C. 2001. Bottled water. Understanding a social phenomenon. Journal of Human Environment, 30 (2): 15 – 24.
[13]
World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater: volume II wstewater use in agriculture. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. 2000.
[14]
Akharaiyi, T. T.; T. T. Adebolu and M. C. Abiagom. 2007. “A comparison of rainwater in Ondo state, Nigeria to FME approved drinking water quality standard”. Research Journal of Microbiology, 2 (11): 807 – 815.
[15]
Ikem, A.; S. Odueyungbo; N. O. Egiebor and K. Nyavor. 2002. “Chemical quality of bottled water from three cities in Eastern Alabama”. The Science of the Total Environment, 285: 165 – 175.
[16]
Adeyeye, E. I. 2000. “Bio-concentration of macro and trace elements in prawns living in Lagos Lagoon”. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 43: 367 – 373.
[17]
Caraco, N. F.; J. J. Cole; G. E. Likens; G. M. Lovett and K. C. Weathers. 2003. Variation in nitrate export from flowing waters of vastly different sizes: Does one model fit it? Ecosystems, 6: 344 – 352.
[18]
Donohue, I.; M. L. McGarrigle and P. Mills. 2006. Linking catchment characteristics and water chemistry with the ecological status of Irish Rivers. Wat. Res., 40: 91 – 98.
[19]
Fovwe, O. D.; O. Solomon and O. F. Ebhodaghe. 2014. An appraisal of groundwater quality in selected areas in Warri Metropolis. Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science, 3 (5): 55 – 60.
[20]
Khan, N.; S. T. Hussain; J. Hussain; N. Jamila; S. Ahmed; R. Ullah; Z. Ullah; S. Ali and A. Saboor. 2012. Chemical and microbial investigation of drinking water sources from Kohat, Pakistan. Int. J. Phys. Sci., 7 (26): 4093 – 5002.
[21]
McGeer, J. C.; K. V. Brix; J. M. Skeaff; D. K. Deforest and S. I. Brigham. 2003. Inverse relationship between bioconcentration factor and exposure concentration for metals: Implication for hazard assessment of metals in the aquatic environment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 22: 1017 – 1037.
[22]
Hodgkinson, B.; D. Evans and J. Wood. 2003. Maintaining oral hydration in older adults: a systematic review. Inter. J. of Nursing Prac., 9: S19 – 28.
[23]
Shyamala, R. M.; D. M. Shanti and O. P. Lalitha. 2001. Physicochemical analysis of borehole water samples of Telungupalayam area in Coimbatore District, Tamilnadu, India. E-J. of Chem., 5 (4): 924 -929.
[24]
Plate, D. K.; B. I. Strassmann and M. L. Wilson. 2004. Water sources are associated with childhood diarrhea prevalence in rural east-central Mali. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 9: 416 – 425.
[25]
Kravitz, D. J.; A. Nyaphisi; R. Mandel and E. Petersen. 1999. Quantitative bacterial examination of domestic water supplies in the Lesotho Highlands: water quality, sanitation and village health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 77 (10): 828 -836.
[26]
Rail, C. D. Groundwater contamination, volume 1: Contamination, sources, and hydrology. Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 2000. p. 187.
[27]
WHO. “Guidelines for drinking water quality”. World Health Organization, Geneva, Volume 1, 4th Edition. 2011.
[28]
DiGiulio, D. C. and R. B. Jackson. 2000. “Impact to underground sources of drinking water and domestic wells from production well stimulation and completion practices in the Pavillion, Wyoming Field” Environmental Science & Technology, 50 (8): 4524–4536.
[29]
Amangabara, G. T. and E. Ejenma. 2012. Groundwater quality assessment of Yenagoa and Environs Bayelsa State, Nigeria between 2010 and 2011. Resources and Environment, 2 (2): 20 -29.
[30]
Akpabio, J. J. and F. E. Ekpo. 2013. Physico-Chemical and heavy metals quality assessment of borehole water in different residential areas of Uyo Metropolis: A case study of G. R. A. and low income residential areas. International Journal of Science and Research, 4 (2): 670 – 674.
[31]
Oladipo, M. O. A.; R. L. Njinga; A. Baba and I. Mohammed. 2011. Contaminant evaluation of major drinking water sources (boreholes water) in Lapai metropolis. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2 (6): 123 – 130.
[32]
Anake, W. U.; C. O. Ehi-Eromosele; T. O. Siyanbola; A. Edobor-Osoh; I. O. Adeniyi and O. S. Taiwo. 2013. Physicochemical and microbial assessment of different water sources in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Research, 5 (7): 1797 – 1801.
[33]
Alex, A. A.; N. V. Chinedu; A. M. Olatunde; N. K. Longinus and J. A. Omosileola. 2015. Groundwater quality assessment in Eliozu community, Port Harcourt, Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 4 (12): 149 -156.
[34]
Beka, J. E. and G. J. Udom. 2014. Quality status of groundwater in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science Inventions Today, 3 (5): 436 – 449.
[35]
Udousoro, I. and I. Umoren. 2014. Assessment of surface and ground water quality of Uruan in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 4 (6): 11 – 27.
[36]
Udousoro, I. I. and V. M. Udoh. 2015. Source identification and health risks assessment of toxic metals in rainwater and groundwater in Eket and Esit Eket, Nigeria. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology and Sciences, 13 (1): 227 - 245.
[37]
Njar, G. N.; A. I. Iwara; R. A. Offiong and T. D. Deekor. 2012. Assessment of heavy metal status of boreholes in Calabar South local government area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 5 (1): 86 – 91.
[38]
Emeka, U. J.; N. A. Osondu and U. U. Uruh. 2015. Comparative assessment of borehole water qualities from oil-producing and non-oil producing areas of Oron, Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Research, 2 (8): 744 – 754.
[39]
40. Akpoveta, O. V.; B. E. Okoh and S. A. Osakwe. 2011. Quality assessment of borehole water used in the vicinities of Benin, Edo State and Agbor, Delta State of Nigeria. Current Research in Chemistry, 3 (1): 62 – 69.
[40]
National Population Commission (NPC). Population and Housing Census of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. 2006.
[41]
American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th (Eds). Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, & Eaton, AD, (Eds); American Public Health Association: Washington, DC. 1998.
[42]
American Society for testing and materials (ASTM) (1982). Standard methods for acidity or alkalinity of water. American society for Testing and materials, Philadelphia.
[43]
44. American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association. AWWA, Water Environmental Federation WEF. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st Edition. 2005.
[44]
American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste water, twenty first ed., Washington, DC. 1992.
[45]
Ademoroti, C. M. A. 1996. Standard methods for water and waste effluents analysis. Foludex Press Ltd., 1996, Ibadan.
[46]
APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edition. Washington, USA: American Public Health Association. 2008.
[47]
Udom, G. J.; J. O. Etu-Efeotor and E. O. Esu. 1999. Hydro chemical evaluation of groundwater in parts of Port Harcourt and Tai-Elemi local government area, Rivers State. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 5: 546 – 552.
[48]
Udom, G. J.; F. A. Ushie and E. O. Esu. 2002. A geochemical survey of groundwater in Khana and Gokana local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. & Environ. Mgt., 1: 51 – 59.
[49]
Ofoma, A. E.; O. S. Onwuka and O. C. Egbu. 2005. Groundwater quality in Lekwesi Umuchieze area, South-eastern Nigeria. The Pacific J. Sci. Technol. 6: 170 – 176.
[50]
Sawyer, C. N.; P. McCarthy and A. Parking. Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Sciences5th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2003. New York, p. 752.
[51]
Inam, E.; K-W, Kim; G. Ebong and E. Eduok. 2010. Trace elements in ground and packaged water in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Geosystem Engineering, 13 (2): 57 -68.
[52]
Howard, G.; S. Pedley; M. Barrett; M. Nolubega and K. Johal. 2003. Risk contributing to microbial contamination of shallow groundwater in Kampala, Uganda. Water Research, 37: 3421 – 3429.
[53]
Todd, D. K. Groundwater Hydrology, 2nd Ed. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 1980. p. 315.
[54]
Eletta, O.; A. Adeniyi and A. Dolapo. 2010. Physico-chemical characterisation of some groundwater supply in a school environment in Ilorin, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9 (22): 3293 – 3297.
[55]
Longe, E. and M. Balogun. 2010. Groundwater quality assessment near a municipal landfill, Lagos, Nigeria. Research Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, 2 (1): 39 – 44.
[56]
Mahananda, M.; B. Mohanty and N. Behera. 2010. Physico-chemical analysis of surface and groundwater of Bargarh District, Orissa, India. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, 2 (3): 284 – 295.
[57]
Goel, P. K. Water pollution, causes, effects and control. 2nd Edition, Macmillan publishers, 2006. London.
[58]
Nwosu, J. N. and C. C. Ogueke. 2004. Evaluation of sachet water samples in Owerri Metropolis. Nig. Food J., 22: 0189 – 7241.
[59]
Dhawan, A. and S. Karu. 2002. Pig dung as pond manure: Effects on water quality, pond productivity and growth of carps in polyculture system. Naga: The ICLARM Q., 25: 11-14.
[60]
Nduka, J. K.; O. E. Orisakwe and L. O. Ezenweke. 2008. “Some physicochemical parameters of potable water supply in Warri, Niger Delta area of Nigeria”. Scientific Research and Essay, 3 (11): 547 – 551.
[61]
Oluyemi, E. A.; A. S. Adekunle; A. A. Adenuga and W. O. Makinde. 2010. Physicochemical properties and heavy metal content of water sources in Ifane North local government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Afr. J. of Environ. Sci. and Tech., 4 (10): 691 – 697.
[62]
Ibok, U. J.; E. D. Udosen and D. M. Udoidiong. 1989. Heavy metals in water from some streams in Ikot Ekpene area of Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria. Research Journal of Technology, 1: 61 -66.
[63]
Molot, L. A. and P. J. Dillon. 2003. Variation in iron, aluminium and dissolved organic carbon mass transfer coefficients in lakes. Water Research, 37: 1759 – 1768.
[64]
Shaked, Y., Erel, Y. and Sukenik, A. (2004). The biogeo-chemical cycle of iron and associated elements in Lake Kinneret. Geochimica et Cosmoschimica Acta, 68: 1439 – 1451.
[65]
Lide, D. R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press. 2006.
[66]
WHO (2001). Zinc (Environmental health criteria; 221). Geneva, World Health Organization.
[67]
Fosmire, G. J. 1990. Zinc toxicity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51: 225 -227.
[68]
Cox, D. W. and S. D. P. Moore. 2002. Copper transporting P-type ATPases and human disease. J. Bioenerg Biomenbr, 34: 333 – 338.
[69]
Madsen, E. and J. D. Gitlin. 2007. Copper and iron disorders of the brain. Annu. Rev. Neurosci, 30: 17 -37.
[70]
Scheiber, I.; R. Dringen and J. F. B. Mercer. 2013. "Copper: Effects of Deficiency and Overload". In Sigel, Astrid; Sigel, Helmut; Sigel, Roland K. O. Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 13. Springer. pp. 359–87.
[71]
Brunton, L. L.; L. S. Goodman; D. Blumenthal; I. Buxton and K. L. Parker. eds. "Principles of toxicology". Goodman and Gilman's Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. McGraw-Hill Professional. 2007.
[72]
Cleveland, L. M.; M. L. Minter; K. A. Cobb; A. A. Scott and V. F. German. 2008. "Lead hazards for pregnant women and children: part 1: immigrants and the poor shoulder most of the burden of lead exposure in this country. Part 1 of a two-part article details how exposure happens, whom it affects, and the harm it can do". The American Journal of Nursing, 108 (10): 40–49.
[73]
Pearce, J. M. 2007. "Burton's line in lead poisoning". European Neurology, 57 (2): 118–119.
[74]
Agency for toxic substances and disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological profile for cadmium. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services. NTIS Report No. PB/89/194476/AS.1999.
[75]
Jarup, L. 2002. “Cadmium overload and toxicity.” Nephrology Dialysis Transportation, 17 (Suppl. 2): 35 – 39.
[76]
Verougstraete, V. and D. Lison. 2003. “Cadmium, lung, and prostrate cancer: A systematic review of recent epidemiological data.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 6 (Part B): 227 – 255.
[77]
Sauri-Riancho, M. R.; D. D. Cabanas-Vargas; M. Echeverria-Victoria; M. Gamboa-Marrufo; R. Centeno-Lara and R. I. Mendez-Novelo. 2011. Locating hazardous waste treatment facilities and disposal sites in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. Environ Earth Sci., 63: 351–362.
[78]
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Health assessment document for nickel and nickelcompounds. EPA Report 600/8-83/012FF. 1986. p. 460.
[79]
Nielsen, G. D.; U. Soderberg; P. J. Jorgensen; D. M. Templeton; S. N. Rasmussen; K. K. Andersen, and P. Grandjean. 1999. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 154: 67 – 75.
[80]
Chang, L. W. Toxicology of metals. Lewis publishers: 1996. New York. pp. 245 – 246.
[81]
Rudzki, E. 2000. Interpretation of the patch samples. Part 1: Metals, rubber and plastic materials. Alergia 3/6, 1. (in Polish).
[82]
Mirza, R.; A. Fakhri; I. Faghiri and A. Azimi. 2013. Avinvestigation of nickel and vanadium ratio from oil pollution in sediments and rocky shore Oysters (Saccostrea cucullata) in Bushehr Coasts (Persian Gulf). Oceanography, 4 (14): 1 -5.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186