Design for Stable Lasing of an Indirect Injection THz Quantum Cascade Laser Operating at Less Than 2 THz
International Journal of Materials Science and Applications
Volume 6, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 230-234
Received: Jul. 4, 2017;
Accepted: Jul. 17, 2017;
Published: Aug. 11, 2017
Views 2584 Downloads 145
Tsung-Tse Lin, Terahertz Quantum Device Laboratory, Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Sendai, Japan
Hideki Hirayama, Terahertz Quantum Device Laboratory, Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Sendai, Japan
In order to realize high temperature lasing of low frequency (< 2 THz) terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz QCLs), selective carrier injection into an upper lasing level using an indirect injection (II) scheme is an effective method for inducing population inversion. The II scheme is realized with a four-level system. However, a three-level system that operates at low applied bias voltages causes additional lasing at higher frequencies (4～5 THz). By detuning the wave functions at the three lasing levels operating at low bias voltages, we were able to operate an II scheme THz QCL at a single stable frequency. Utilizing the higher injection selectivity, achieved through an indirect scattering-assisted injection process combined with diagonal emission, we were able to demonstrate stable operation of an AlGaAs/GaAs QCL operating at 1.89 THz at temperatures up to 160 K.
Design for Stable Lasing of an Indirect Injection THz Quantum Cascade Laser Operating at Less Than 2 THz, International Journal of Materials Science and Applications.
Vol. 6, No. 5,
2017, pp. 230-234.
T. K.-Ostmann and T. Nagatsuma, "A Review on Terahertz Communications Research," J. Infrared. Milliw. TE. 32 (2011) 143.
J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264 (1994) 553.
R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Capasso, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417 (2002) 156.
L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers," Eectron. Lett. 50 (2014) 309.
X. Wang, C. Shen, T. Jiang, Z. Zhan, Q. Deng, W. Li, W. Wu, N. Yang, W. Chu, and S. Duan, "High-power terahertz quantum cascade lasers with 0.23 W in continuous wave mode," AIP Advan. 6 (2016) 075210.
G. Liang, T. Liu, and Q. J. Wang, "Recent Developments of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers," IEEE j. sel. top. quantum electron 23 (2017) 1200118.
S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. M´aty´as, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to~200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling," Opt. Express 20 (2012) 3866.
S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of hω/kB," Nat. Phys. 7 (2011) 166.
M. Yamanishi, K. Fujita, T. Edamura, and H. Kan, "Indirect pump scheme for quantum cascade lasers: dynamics of electron-transport and very high T0-values," Opt. Express 16 (2008) 20748.
H. Yasuda, T. Kubis, P. Vogl, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, and K. Hirakawa, "Nonequilibrium Green’s function calculation for four-level scheme terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 (2009) 151109.
T. Kubis, S. R. Mehrotra, and G. Klimeck, "Design concepts of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: Proposal for terahertz laser efficiency improvements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 (2010) 261106.
T. Liu, T. Kubis, Q. J. Wang, and G. Klimeck, "Design of three-well indirect pumping terahertz quantum cascade lasers for high optical gain based on nonequilibrium Green’s function analysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 (2012) 122110.
E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 111 (2012) 073111.
K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, K. Tanaka, T. Edamura, T. Kubis, and G. Klimeck, "Indirectly pumped 3.7 THz InGaAs/InAlAs quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy," Opt. Express 20 (2012) 20647.
S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, "Delay time calculation for dual-wavelength quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 113 (2013) 203107.
S. Khanal, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, "2.1 THz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 144 K based on a scattering-assisted injection design," Opt. Express 23 (2015) 19689.
T.-T. Lin, L. Ying, and H. Hirayama, "Threshold Current Density Reduction by Utilizing High-Al-Composition Barriers in 3.7 THz GaAs/AlxGa1-x As Quantum Cascade Lasers," Appl. Phys. Express 5 (2012) 012101.
T.-T. Lin and H. Hirayama, "Improvement of operation temperature in GaAs/AlGaAs THz-QCLs by utilizing high Al composition barrier," Phys. Stat. Sol. C 10 (2013) 1430.