Preparation of Flame Retardant Cotton Fabric Using Environmental Friendly Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
International Journal of Materials Science and Applications
Volume 6, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages: 269-276
Received: Aug. 21, 2017; Accepted: Sep. 6, 2017; Published: Oct. 16, 2017
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Authors
Sechin Chang, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service - Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
Brian Condon, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service - Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
Jade Smith, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service - Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
Michael Easson, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service - Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
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Abstract
Due to its environmentally benign character, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is considered in green chemistry, as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this paper, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant cotton fabric was obtained by utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide with co-solvent. A novel phosphorus-nitrogen containing piperazine derivative, tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (pdp) and a sulfur-nitrogen containing derivative, tetramethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonothioate (pdpt) were synthesized, and their chemical structures were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR) and elemental analysis. pdp and pdpt were then used to treat cotton fabric processed in scCO2. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vertical flame test (ASTM D6413-08), and limiting oxygen index (LOI, ASTM D2863-09) were performed on the treated cotton fabrics, and showed promising results. When the treated fabrics were tested using the vertical flame, we observed that the ignited fabrics self extinguished and left behind a streak of char. Treated higher add-on fabrics were neither consumed by flame, nor produced glowing ambers upon self extinguishing. The results from cotton fabrics treated with new phosphorus-nitrogen containing piperazine derivatives demonstrated a higher LOI value as well as higher char yields due to the effectiveness of phosphorus and nitrogen as a flame retardant for cotton fabrics. Furthermore, SEM was employed to characterize the chemical structure on the treated fabrics as well as the surface morphology of char areas of treated and untreated fabrics.
Keywords
Cotton Fabric, Flame Retardant, Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, Flame Test
To cite this article
Sechin Chang, Brian Condon, Jade Smith, Michael Easson, Preparation of Flame Retardant Cotton Fabric Using Environmental Friendly Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, International Journal of Materials Science and Applications. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2017, pp. 269-276. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20170606.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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