Preparation of Flame Retardant Cotton Fabric Using Environmental Friendly Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
International Journal of Materials Science and Applications
Volume 6, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages: 269-276
Received: Aug. 21, 2017;
Accepted: Sep. 6, 2017;
Published: Oct. 16, 2017
Views 2447 Downloads 138
Sechin Chang, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service - Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
Brian Condon, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service - Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
Jade Smith, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service - Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
Michael Easson, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service - Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, USA
Preparation of Flame Retardant Cotton Fabric Using Environmental Friendly Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, International Journal of Materials Science and Applications.
Vol. 6, No. 6,
2017, pp. 269-276.
E. D. Weil and S. V. Levchik, Flame Retardants for Plastics and Textiles: Practical Applications. Munich, Germany: Carl Hanser Verlag, 2009, pp. 197-225.
A. R. Horrocks, B. K. Kandola, P. J. Davies, S. Zhang, and S. A. Padbury, “Developments in flame retardant textiles- a review”, Polymer Degradation Stability vol. 88(1), pp. 3-12, 2005.
S. Hörold, “Phosphorus flame retardants in thermoset resins”, Polymer Degradation Stability vol. 64(3), pp. 427-431, 1999.
H. Horacek, and R. Grabner, “Advantages of flame retardants based on nitrogen compounds”, Polymer Degradation Stability vol. 54(2-3), pp. 205-215, 1996.
S. V. Levchik, “Introduction to flame retardancy and polymer flammability,” in Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites, A. B. Morgan and C. A. Wilkie, Eds. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007, pp. 1-19.
E. D. Weil, “Synergists, adjuvants and antagonists in flame retardant systems,” in Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials, A. F. Grand and C. A. Wilkie, Eds. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1999, pp. 115-145.
C. Y. Yin, J. B. Li, Q. Xu, Q. Peng, Y. B. Liu, and X. Y. Shen, “Chemical modification of cotton cellulose in supercritical carbon dioxide: Synthesis and characterization of cellulose carbamate”, Carbohydrate Polymers vol. 67(2), pp. 147-154, 2007.
G. Kraft, C. Muss, C. Adelwöhrer, T. Roder, and T. Rosenau, “Treatment of cellulosic fibers with supercritical carbon dioxide”, Lenzinger Berichte vol. 83, pp. 117–121, 2004.
C. Tsioptsias, and C. Panayiotou, “Thermal stability and hydrophobicity enhancement of wood through impregnation with aqueous solutions and supercritical carbon dioxide”, Journal of Materials Science vol. 46 (16), pp. 5406–5411, 2011.
L. V. Ginneken, and H. Weyten, “Particle formation using supercritical carbon dioxide,” in Carbon Dioxide Recovery and Utilization, M. Aresta, Ed. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003, pp. 123–136.
G. Filardo, A. Galia, and A. Giaconia, “Modification of polymers in supercritical carbon dioxide,” in Carbon Dioxide Recovery and Utilization, M. Aresta, Ed. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003, pp. 197–207.
American Society for Standards and Testing (ASTM D-2863-09) Standard Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support Candle-Like Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index) 2009.
American Society for Standards and Testing (ASTM D-6413-08) Standard Test Method for Flame Resistance of Textiles (Vertical Flame Test) 2008.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 8.03, West Conshohocken, PA, USA: ASTM International, 2013, pp 1–11.
T.-M. Nguyen, S. Chang, B. Condon, R. Slopek, E. Graves, and M. Yoshioka-Tarver, “Structural effect of phosphoramidate derivatives on the thermal and flame retardant behaviors of treated cotton cellulose”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research vol. 52(13), pp. 4715-4724, 2013.
A. A. Faroq, D. Price, G. J. Milnes, and A. R. Horrocks, “Thermogravimetric analysis study of the mechanism of pyrolysis of untreated and flame retardant treated cotton fabrics under a continuous flow of nitrogen”, Polymer Degradation and Stability vol. 44(3), pp. 323-333, 1994.
Y. Chen, A. Frendi, S. S. Tewari, and M. Sibulkin, “Combustion properties of pure and fire-retarded cellulose”, Combustion and Flame vol. 84(1-2), pp. 121-140, 1991.
Y. Chen, H. Peng, J. Li, Z. Xia, and H. Tan, “A novel flame retardant containing phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur”, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry vol. 115(2), pp. 1639-1649, 2014.
J. Feng, J. Hao, and J. Du, “Some developments in halogen-free flame retardancy of polycarbonate and its blends,” in Fire and Polymers VI: New Advances in Flame Retardant Chemistry and Science, A. B. Morgan, C. A. Wilkie, and G. L. Nelson, Eds. Washington D. C.: American Chemical Society, 2012, pp. 113-122.
A. R. Horrocks and S. C. Anand, Handbook of Technical Textiles. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Ltd and CRC Press LLC, 2000, Chap. 10.
A. R. Horrocks and D. Price, Fire Retardant Materials. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Ltd and CRC Press LLC, 2001, Chap. 3-4.