Effect of Chemical Treatments on the Physicochemical and Tensile Properties of Cow Hair Fibre for Low Load Bearing Composites Development
This research has investigated the influence of H2O2, KOH and NaOH treatments on the physicochemical and tensile properties of cow hair fibres for composites applications. The chemical treatments for this present study were prepared with predetermined molar concentrations of 0.10, 0.15 and 0.2 M respectively. The physicochemical properties of the cow hair fibres were established using proximate analysis and the tensile properties of the fibres were evaluated with the aid of an Instron universal testing machine. From the results of the proximate analysis, it was observed that, with increase in the concentration of the H2O2 treatment there was increase in the crude protein and moisture contents and decrease in the ash content of the fibres. However, the KOH and NaOH treatments showed an opposite trend. Also, from the tensile test results, it was observed that the chemical treatments aided the enhancement of ultimate tensile and yield strengths of the fibres in comparison with the untreated fibres while tensile strain at break was enhanced by 0.1 and 0.2 M of KOH as well as 0.2 M of NaOH treatments. The results of this research have shown that proper chemical treatment can enhance the properties of cow hair fibres for composites applications.
Isiaka Oluwole Oladele,
Jimmy Lolu Olajide,
Adekunle Sulaiman Ogunbadejo,
Effect of Chemical Treatments on the Physicochemical and Tensile Properties of Cow Hair Fibre for Low Load Bearing Composites Development, International Journal of Materials Science and Applications.
Vol. 4, No. 3,
2015, pp. 189-197.
M.P. Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, Materials, Processes and Synthesis, 4th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, INC, Danvers, United State of America, (2010) pp. 306, 698-700.
H.F. El-Labban, M. Abdelaziz, E.R.I Mahmoud, Modification of Carbon Steel by Laser Surface Melting: Part II: Effect of Laser Beam Power on Microstructural Features and Surface Hardness, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6 (4): (2014) pp. 384-392.
B. Kuriachen, K.P. Somashekhar, J. Matthew, Multiresponse Optimization of Micro-wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 76: (2015) pp. 91-104.
J.C. Shaw, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, N.O. Weiss, Y. Liu, Y. Huang, X. Duan, Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer MoSe2Nanosheets, Nano Research, Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (2014) pp. 2-6.
M. Fathi, T. Zarede, M. Ayad, M. Abderrazak, Application of Thin Films and Nanotechnology for Improving the Performance of Solar Energy Systems in the Desert Climate Conditions, Int'l Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Energy and Manufacturing Engineering , June 9-10, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, (2014) pp. 51-54.
M.J. Lieser, J. Xu, Composites and the Future of Society: Preventing a Legacy of Costly Corrosion with Modern Materials, Owens Corning, Innovation for Living, (2010) pp. 13-15.
C. Leyens, M. Peters, Aerospace and Materials, Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. III, (2003) pp. 3-6.
B. Bell, Materials Intelligence: An Overview of New Materials for Manufactures, FPInnovations, (2011) pp. 7-12.
C. Popescu, H. Iancau, L. Hancu, A. Crai, A Study Regarding the Mechanical Behavior of Polymeric Composites at Cryogenic Temperature, Annals of the University of Craiova, Electrical Engineering Series, No. 32,(2008) pp. 346-350.
E. Wuchina, E. Opila, M. Opeka, W. Fahrenholtz, I. Talmy,UHTCs: Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Materials for Extreme Environment Applications, the Electrochemical Society Interface, (2007) pp. 30-35.
V.N. Haruna, A.S. Abdulrahman, P.T. Zubairu, L.O. Isezuo, M.A. Abdulrahman, D.C. Onuoha, Prospects and Challenges of Composites in a Developing Country, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 7, (2014) pp. 1069-1071.
M. Ashby, K. Johnson, Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design, Second Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, United Kingdom, (2010) pp. 14-25.
H.A. Abba, I.Z. Nur, S.M. Salit, Review of Agro Waste Plastic Composites Production, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol.1, No.5, (2013) pp. 271-279.
J. Sahari, S.M. Sapaun, Natural Fibre Reinforced Biodegradable Polymer Composites, Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, 30, (2011) pp. 166-174.
N.A. Anthony, Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Polyester Matrix Reinforced With Bamboo Fibre for the Production of Low Strength Building Products, International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 2, (2013) pp. 57-65.
K.B. Jagadeeshgouda, P.R. Reddy, K. Ishwaraprasad, Experimental Study of Behaviour of Poultry Feather Fiber: A Reinforcing Material for Composites, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, (2014) pp. 363-371.
J.P. Dhal, S.C. Mishra, Processing and Properties of Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite, Journal of Materials Science, (2013) pp. 4-5.
J.B. Rao, D.V. Rao, N.R.M.R, Bhargava, Development of Light Weight ALFA Composites, International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology Vol. 2, No. 11, (2010) pp. 55-58.
J.A.K. Gladston, N.M. Sherrif, I. Dinaharan, J.D.R. Selvam, Production and Characterization of Rich Husk Ash Particulate Reinforced AA6061 Aluminum Alloy Composites by Compocasting, Transactions of NonFerrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 25, No. 3 (2015).
M.A. Masuelli, Introduction of Fibre-Reinforced Polymers − Polymers and Composites: Concepts, Properties and Processes, Intech, Chapter 1, (2011).
W.D. Callister, D.G. Rethwisch, Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering, An Integrated Approach, Third Edition, John Wiley and Sons, INC, Asia, Chapter 1, (2008) pp 5-13.
D. Jain, A. Kothari, Hair Fibre Reinforced Concrete, Recent Journal of Recent Sciences, Vol. 1, (2012) pp. 128-133.
U.G. Tomas, Effects of Human Hair Additives in Compressive Strength of Asphalt Cement Mixture, International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol.67, (2014) pp.11-22.
B.R. George, A. Bockarie, H. McBride, D. Hoppy, A. Scutti, Utilization of Turkey Feather Fibers in Nonwoven Erosion Control Fabrics, INJ Summer, (2003) pp. 45-50.
E. Dirgar, O. Oral, Yarn and Fabric Production from Angora Rabbit Fiber and Its End-Uses, American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology, 2014, Vol. 2, No. 2, (2014) pp. 26-28.
K. Adam, Natural Fibres, retrieved from http://www.naturalfibres2009.org/en/fibres/ on 20-04-2015.
E.T. Moran, J.D. Summers, Processing of Tannery By-Product Cattle Hair into a Nutritionally Available High Protein Meal: Metabolizable Energy, Amino Acid Composition and Utilization In Practical Diets By The Chick Department of Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (2009).
I. Khan, E. Maldonado, V. Vasconcelos, S.J. O’Brien, W.E. Johnson, A. Antunes, Mammalian Keratin Associated Proteins (Krtaps) Subgenomes: Disentangling Hair Diversity and Adaptation to Terrestrial And Aquatic Environments, BMC Genomics, 15:779, (2014) pp. 2-5.
I.O. Oladele, J.A. Omotoyimbo, S.H. Ayemidejo, Mechanical Properties of Chicken Feather and Cow Hair Fibre Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites. International Journal of Science and Technology Volume 3 No. 1, (2014) pp. 66-71.
I.O. Oladele, J.L. Olajide, A.S. Ogunbadejo, The Influence of Chemical Treatment on the Mechanical Behaviour of Animal Fibre-Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites, American Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 04, Issue 02, (2015) pp. 19-26.
G. Motsanos, Advantages of Natural-fibre Applications using BioHybrid Composites, retrieved from http://www.jeccomposites.com/news/composites-news/advantages-natural-fibre-applications-using-biohybrid-composites on 15-04-2015.
S. Parveen, S. Rana, Raul Fangueiro, Natural Fiber Composites for Structural Applications, Mechanics of Nano, Micro and Macro Composite Structures Politecnico di Torino, (2012).
M.M. Kabir, H. Wang, K.T. Lau, F. Cardona, Natural Materials in Composites Engineering, Chemical treatments on Plant-based Natural Fibre-reinforced Polymer Composites: An Overview, Composites Part B: Engineering Volume 43, Issue 7, (2012) pp. 2883–2892.
M. Huda, W. Schmidt, M. Misra, L. T. Drzal, Effect of Fiber Surface Treatment of Poultry Feather Fibers on the Properties of Their Polymer Matrix Composites Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Volume 128, Issue 2, (2013) pp.1117-1124.
A. Lakshmanan, Finishing of Angora Rabbit Fibers, American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, (2014) pp. 20-25.
O.A. Lawal-Adebowale, Dynamics of Ruminant Livestock Management in the Context of the Nigerian Agricultural System, Chapter 4, Agricultural and Biological Sciences, Livestock Production, intech, (2012) pp. 61-74.
A.O.K, Adesehinwa, J.O. Okunola, M.K. Adewumi, Socio-economic Characteristics of Ruminant Livestock Farmers and their Production Constraints in Some Parts of South-Western Nigerian. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 16 (8) (2004).
http://gemsnigeria.com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2012/12/GEMS1MidiBrief_LeatherIndustryTransformation-8Page.pdf Retrieved on 20-04-2015.
K. Ekenma, N. J.Anelon, A. A.Ottah, Determination of the presence and concentration of heavy metals in cattle hides singed in Nsukka Abattoirs , Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health pp. Vol. 7 (1) (2015) pp 9-14.
W.Y. Akwetey, D.C. Eremong, A. Donkoh A, Chemical and Nutrient Composition of Cattle Hide (“Welle”) using Different Processing Methods, Journal of Animal Science Advances 3 (4), (2013) pp. 176-180.
AOAC International Official Method of Analysis996-06, revised 2001, in Official Methods of Analysis, 18th edition: AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, (2001).
ASTM. 1983, “Standard Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension”, Designation D412-83, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, (1983).
P.B. Goud , M.S. Kachole, Effect of Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide on Peroxidase and Polyphenoloxidase Activities in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Detached Leaves, International Journal of Current Research Vol. 3, Issue, 10, (2011) pp. 061-065.
L. J. Wolfram, K. Hall, I. Hui, The Mechanism of Hair Bleaching, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 21, (1970) pp. 875-900.
C.R. Robbins, Chemical and Physical Behavior of Human Hair, Chapter 2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg,(2012) pp. 105-120.
O.M. Ameen, L.A. Usman, N.O. Muhammed, O.F. Okeola, E.O. Boluwarin, O.O. Fadeyi, Effect of Heat and Alkaline Hydrolysis on the Amino Acid Profile of Jatropha Curcas Seed Cake, African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Vol. 14, No. 2, (2014) pp. 2-10.
A. L. Horvath, Solubility of Structurally Complicated Materials: 3.Hair, The Scientific World Journal 9, (2009) pp. 255–271.
N. Baghdadli, G.S. Luengo, A Closer Look at the Complex Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Interactions Forces at the Human Hair Surface, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 100 (2008) 052034.
M.J. John, R.D. Anandjiwala, Recent Developments in Chemical Modification and Characterization of Natural Fibre-Reinforced Composites, Polym Compos 29(2): (2008) pp. 187-207.
R.G. Washburn, L.O. Gilmore, N.S. Fechheimer, The Chemical Composition of Cattle Hair. I, The Fat, Ash and Nitrogen Content, The Ohio Journal of Science. v58n3 (1958) pp. 150-152.
M.F. Rosa, B. Chiou , E.S. Medeiros, D.F. Wood, T.G. Williams, L.H.C. Mattoso, W.J. Orts, S.H. Imam, Effect of Fiber Treatments on Tensile and Thermal Properties of Starch/Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymers/Coir Biocomposites, Bioresource Technology 100, (2009) pp. 5196–5202.
M. V. R. Velasco, T. C. S. Dias, A. Z. Freitas, N. D. Vieira Júnior, C. A. S. O. Pinto, T. M. Kaneko, A. R. Baby, Hair Fiber Characteristics and Methods to Evaluate Hair Physical and Mechanical Properties, Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 45, No. 1, (2009). pp. 154-157.
T. McKay, Elasticity and Healthy Hair,http://www.naturallycurly.com/curlreading/wavy-hair-type-2/elasticity-and-healthy-hair/ retrieved on 20-04-2015.
W.D. Callister, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 7th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, United States of America, (2007). pp. 144-150.