Measurement of Different Heavy Metals Concentration in Roadside Dust in the Vicinity of Gujrat, Pakistan
Science Journal of Chemistry
Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2017, Pages: 51-57
Received: Dec. 18, 2016;
Accepted: Mar. 7, 2017;
Published: Aug. 29, 2017
Views 1697 Downloads 95
Nusrat Bashir, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan
Mujahid Farid, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan
Rashid Saeed, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan
Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan
Shafaqat Ali, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Rizwan, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Ayesha Siddiqua, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan
Rasham Sallah-Ud-Din, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan
Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization in many countries of the world, heavy metals are continuously emitted into the terrestrial environment and posing great threat to human health. The present study was conducted to measure the concentration of six heavy metals, chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in roadside dust of five major roads in Gujrat city. The dust samples were collected from five different locations in the vicinity of Gujrat. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the dust samples were higher than their permissible limits. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were much higher than those in the background value of Gujrat soil. Results clearly concluded that the heavy traffic and transportation is the major responsible source of these heavy metals in the road dust of Gujrat city along with the transportation of sewage sludge, surface runoff from agricultural land and discharge of sewage water from drains.
Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer,
Measurement of Different Heavy Metals Concentration in Roadside Dust in the Vicinity of Gujrat, Pakistan, Science Journal of Chemistry.
Vol. 5, No. 4,
2017, pp. 51-57.
Adrees M, Ali S, Rizwan M, Ibrahim M, Abbas F, Farid M, Zia-ur-Rehman M, Irshad MK, Bharwana SA (2015a) The effect of excess copper on growth and physiology of important food crops: A. review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(11): 8148-8162. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-4496-5.
Adrees M, Ali S, Rizwan M, Zia-ur-Rehman M, Ibrahim M, Abbas F, Farid M, Qayyum MF, Irshad MK (2015b) Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of heavy metal toxicity in plants: A. review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 119: 186-197. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.05.011.
Akhter MS, Madany IM (1993) Heavy metals in street and house dust in Bahrain. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 66(1), 111-119. doi: 10.1007/BF00477063.
Al-Fatlawi SM, Al-Alwani M, (2012) Heavy metals pollution of roadside dust sample with different traffic volumes at Hilla city. The Iraqi Journal for Mechanical And Material Engineering 12(4): 660-672.
Ali S, Bharwana SA, Rizwan M, Farid M, Kanwal S, Ali Q, Ibrahim M, Gill RA, Khan MD (2015) Fulvic acid mediates chromium (Cr) tolerance in wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) through lowering of Cr uptake and improved antioxidant defense system. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(14): 10601-10609. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-4271-7.
Apostoli P, Catalani S, Zaghini A, Mariotti A, Poliani PL, Vielmi V, Semeraro F, Duse S, Porzionato A, Macchi V, Padovani A, Rizzetti MC, de Caro R. (2013) High doses of cobalt induce optic and auditory neuropathy. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 65(6): 719-727. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2012.09.006.
Benin AL, Sargent JD, Dalton M, Roda S. (1999) High concentrations of heavy metals in neighborhoods near ore smelters in northern Mexico. Environmental Health Perspectives 107(4): 279-284.
Bharwana SA, Ali S, Farid M, Jamshaid M, Azeem M, Shakoor MB, Ahmad R, Hannan F. (2014) Noise and ambient air pollution monitoring and its effects on local community in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Academia Journal of Environmental Sciences 2(2): 15-28.
Bharwana SA, Ali S, Farid M, Hannan F, Ahmad R, Tauqeer HM, Baloch IH, Iqbal M. (2015) Work related injuries in small scale metal press industries of Shahdra Town, Lahore, Pakistan. The Holistic Approach to Environment 5(1): 3-11.
Chashschin VP, Artunina GP, Norseth T. (1994) Congenital defects, abortion and other health effects in nickel refinery workers. Science of The Total Environment 148(2): 287-291. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(94)90405-7.
Chervona Y, Arita A, Costa M. (2012) Carcinogenic metals and the epigenome: understanding the effect of nickel, arsenic, and chromium. Metallomics 4(7): 619-627. doi: 10.1039/c2mt20033c.
Cholak J, Schafer LJ, Yeager D. (1968) The air transport of lead compounds present in automobile exhaust gases. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 29(6): 562-568. doi: 10.1080/00028896809343056.
Duong TTT, Lee BK. (2011) Determining contamination level of heavy metals in road dust from busy traffic areas with different characteristics. Journal of Environmental Management 92(3): 554-562. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.09.010.
Duzgoren-Aydin NS, Aydin A. (2006) Chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities of weathered igneous profiles: implications for landslide investigations. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 6(2): 315-322.
Ehsan S, Ali S, Noureen S, Farid M, Shakoor MB, Aslam A, Bharwana SA, Tauqeer HM (2013) Comparative assessment of different heavy metals in urban soil and vegetables irrigated with sewage/industrial waste water. Ecoterra Journal of Environmental Research and Protection 35: 37-53.
Ehsan S, Ali S, Noureen S, Mehmood K, Farid M, Ishaque W, Shakoor MB, Rizwan M. (2014) Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of Cd by Brassica napus L. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 106: 164-172.
Eisler R. (2007) Eisler's encyclopedia of environmentally hazardous priority chemicals. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 986p.
Ezeala-Harrison F. (2015) Environmental Quality in economic development in low-income countries: Application of an EQT model using cross-country sample data. Journal of Sustainable Development 8(2): 122-133 doi: 10.5539/jsd.v8n2p122.
Farid M, Ali S, Ishaque W, Shakoor MB, Niazi NK, Bibi I, Dawood M, Gill RA, Abbas F (2015) Exogenous application of thylenediamminetetraacetic acid enhanced phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napusL. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 12(12): 3981-3992. doi: 10.1007/s13762-015-0831-0.
Gill HS, Grammatopoulos G, Adshead S, Tsialogiannis E, Tsiridis E. (2012) Molecular and immune toxicity of CoCr nanoparticles in MoM hip arthroplasty. Trends in Molecular Medicine 18(3): 145-155. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2011.12.002.
Habiba U, Ali S, Farid M, Shakoor MB, Rizwan M, Ibrahim M, Abbasi GH, Hayat T, Ali B. (2015) EDTA enhanced plant growth, antioxidant defense system, and phytoextraction of copper by Brassica napus L. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(2): 1534-1544. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3431-5.
Hidalgo J, Masson V, Pigeon G. (2008) Urban-breeze circulation during the CAPITOUL experiment: numerical simulations. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 102(3-4): 243-262. doi: 10.1007/s00703-008-0345-0.
Kabadayi F, Cesur H. (2010) Determination of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Mn in road dusts of Samsun City. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 168(1-4): 241-253. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-1108-1.
Kanwal U, Ali S, Shakoor MB, Farid M, Hussain S, Yasmeen T, Adrees M, Bharwana SA, Abbas F. (2014) EDTA ameliorates phytoextraction of lead and plant growth by reducing morphological and biochemical injuries in Brassica napus L. under lead stress. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(16), 9899-9910.
Khaliq A, Ali S, Hameed A, Farooq MA, Farid M, Shakoor MB, Mahmood K, Ishaque W, Rizwan M (2015) Silicon alleviates nickel toxicity in cotton seedlings through enhancing growth, photosynthesis and suppressing Ni uptake and oxidative stress. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 62(5): 633-647. doi: 10.1080/03650340.2015.1073263.
Kim ND, Fergusson JE (1994) The concentrations, distribution and sources of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in the atmosphere of an urban environment. Science of The Total Environment 144(1-3): 179-189. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(94)90437-5
Léonard A, Lauwerys RR (1980) Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chromium. Mutation Research/Reviews in Genetic Toxicology 76(3): 227-239. doi: 10.1016/0165-1110(80)90018-4.
Li X, Poon CS, Liu PS (2001) Heavy metal contamination of urban soils and street dusts in Hong Kong. Applied Geochemistry 16(11-12): 1361-1368. doi: 10.1016/S0883-2927(01)00045-2.
Lindsay WL, Norvell WA (1978) Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil science society of America Journal,42(3), 421-428. doi: 10.2136/sssaj1978.03615995004200030009x.
Liu R, Guan CQ (2005) Mode biases of urban transportation policies in China and their implications. Journal of Urban Planning and Development. 131(2): 58-70. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9488(2005)131: 2(58).
Lokeshwari H, Chandrappa GT (2006) Impact of heavy metal contamination of Bellandur Lake on soil and cultivated vegetation. Current Science 91(5): 622-627.
Muchuweti M, Birkett JW, Chinyanga E, Zvauya R, Scrimshaw MD, Lester JN (2006) Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: Implications for human health. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 112(1): 41-48. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2005.04.028.
Rahman SH, Khanam D, Adyel TM, Islam MS, Ahsan MA, Akbor MA (2012) Assessment of heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil around Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ), Bangladesh: Implication of seasonal variation and indices. Applied Sciences 2(3): 584-601. doi: 10.3390/app2030584.
Rizo OD, Castillo FE, López JA, Merlo MH (2011) Assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban soils of Havana city, Cuba. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 87(4): 414-419. doi: 10.1007/s00128-011-0378-9.
Rizwan M, Ali S, Ibrahim M, Farid M, Adrees M, Bharwana SA, Zia-ur-Rehman M, Qayyum MF, Abbas F (2015) Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(20): 15416-15431. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-5305-x.
Shakoor MB, Ali S, Farid M, Farooq MA, Tauqeer HM, Iftikhar U, Hannan F, Bharwana SA (2013) Heavy metal pollution, a global problem and its remediation by chemically enhanced phytoremediation: A review. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 3(3): 12-20.
Shakoor MB, Ali S, Hameed A, Farid M, Hussain S, Yasmeen T, Najeeb U, Bharwana SA, Abbasi GH (2014) Citric acid improves lead (Pb) phytoextraction in Brassica napus L. by mitigating Pb-induced morphological and biochemical damages. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 109: 38-47.
Shapiro RJ, Hassett KA, Arnold FS (2002) Conserving energy and preserving the environment: The role of public transportation. Report by American Public Transportation Association. 39p. Available at: https://www.apta.com/resources/reportsandpublications/Documents/shapiro.pdf [access date: 09.08.2016].
Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM (2008) Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) contamination of vegetables in urban India: A case study in Varanasi. Environmental Pollution 154(2): 254-263. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.10.010.
Victoria A, Cobbina SJ, Dampare SB, Duwiejuah AB (2014) Heavy Metals Concentration in Road Dust in the Bolgatanga Municipality, Ghana. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health 2(4): 74-80. doi: 10.12691/jephh-2-4-1.
Walters GI, Moore VC, Robertson AS, Burge CBSG, Vellore AD, Burge PS (2012) An outbreak of occupational asthma due to chromium and cobalt. Occupational Medicine 62(7): 533-540. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqs111.
Worldmeters (2016) Population of Pakistan, Retrieved 27 August 2016, from http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/pakistan-population/.
Wei B, Jiang F, Li X, Mu S (2010) Contamination levels assessment of potential toxic metals in road dust deposited in different types of urban environment. Environmental Earth Sciences 61(6): 1187-1196. doi:: 10.1007/s12665-009-0441-6.
Yan X, Gao D, Zhang F, Zeng C, Xiang W, Zhang M (2013) Relationships between heavy metal concentrations in roadside topsoil and distance to road edge based on field sources observations in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10(3): 762-775. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10030762.
Yang Z, Lu W, Long Y, Bao X, Yang Q (2011) Assessment of heavy metals contamination in urban topsoil from Changchun City, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 108(1): 27-38. doi: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2010.09.006.