AFM Studies of the Effect of Chloride Ion on the Morphology of the Copper Electroplating Surface
Volume 3, Issue 2, April 2014, Pages: 15-18
Received: Jul. 1, 2014;
Accepted: Jul. 15, 2014;
Published: Jul. 20, 2014
Views 3432 Downloads 166
Masoud Delgosha, Department of Physics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, 98135-674 Zahedan, Iran
Samira Salehi, Department of Physics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, 98135-674 Zahedan, Iran
Leila Unesi borujeni, Department of physics, ShahidRajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran 16788-15811,Iran
Soheil Sharifi, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1436, Iran
The influence of plating mode, chloride ion on morphology of copper deposits has been studied on pure copper substrate. The electroplating was conducted at 50mA/〖cm〗^2 , 25°C in cupric sulfate-sulfuric acid bath with various chloride additions 0.001-0.01 ml. The morphology and grain sizes of the electrodeposited copper were examined by atomic force microscopy. The maximum surface roughness and grain sizes of copper deposit were obtained when it was deposited with 0.01 ml of chloride ions. Small particles were observed on the surface of the copper film electroplated with the addition of chloride ions up to the amount of 0.001 ml.
Leila Unesi borujeni,
AFM Studies of the Effect of Chloride Ion on the Morphology of the Copper Electroplating Surface, Optics.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2014, pp. 15-18.
Tae-Gyu Woo, Il-Song Park, and Kyeong-Won Seol, Effects of Various Metal Seed Layers on the Surface Morphology and Structural Composition of the Electroplated Copper Layer, Met. Mater. Int., Vol. 15, No. 2 (2009), pp. 293~297.
Tae-Gyu Woo, Il-Song Park, Hyun-Woo Lee, Cheul-Ro Lee and Kyeong-Won Seol, The Effect of Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose (HEC) and Chloride Ions on the Surface Morphology and Mechanical Characteristics during Copper Electrodeposition, Materials Transactions, Vol. 48, No. 7 (2007) pp. 1913 to 1918.
Kondo. K, Akolkar. R. N, Barkey. D. P, Masayuki Yokoi, copper Electrodeposition for Nanofabrication of Electronics Devices, Chapter. 2, (2014) pp. 27 to 43, ISBN: 978-1-4614-9175-0.
NisitTantavichet, Mark D. Pritzker, Effect of plating mode, thiourea and chloride on the morphology of copper deposits produced in acidic sulphate solutions, Electrochimica Acta 50 (2005) 1849–1861.
Y. L. Kao, K. C. Li, G. C. Tu, and C. A. Huang, Microstructural Study of the Effect of Chloride Ion on Electroplating of Copper in Cupric Sulfate-Sulfuric Acid Bath, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 152 (9) C605-C611 (2005).
G. Fabricius and G. Sundholm, J. Appl. Electrochem., 15, 797 (1985).
A. Sato and R. Barauskas, Metal Finishing, 64th Guidebook and Directory Issue, 94 (1A), 214 (1996).
Schlesinger, M., Modern Electroplating, John Wiley, chapter. 2, 5th Edition, 2000
Kim, J.-H., Kim, R.-H., Kwon, H.-S., Preparation of copper foam with 3-dimensionally interconnected spherical pore network by electrodeposition, Electrochem. Communications 2008, 10, 1148-1151.
Nader Jalili, Karthik Laxminarayana, A review of atomic force microscopy imaging systems: application to the molecular metrology and biological sciences, Mechatronics 14 (2004) 907–945.
CHERYL R. BLANCHARD, Atomic Force Microscopy, Vol. 1, No. 5, I SSN 1 4 3 0 - 4 1 7 1, © 1 9 9 6 SPRINGER- VERLAG NEW YORK, INC.