Annual Effective Dose of Radon-222 in Well Water Samples in Male Adults: Idah, Nigeria
American Journal of Optics and Photonics
Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2017, Pages: 45-49
Received: Oct. 24, 2017; Accepted: Nov. 6, 2017; Published: Dec. 15, 2017
Views 1591      Downloads 53
Philip Musa Gyuk, Department of Physics, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Arome Aruwa, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Nigeria
Matoh Dary Dogara, Department of Physics, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Isaac Hyuk Daniel, Department of Physics, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
A total of 25 well water samples from various locations of Idah and environs including Ofukolo, Ega, Ede - Adejo, and Ede - Alaba, have been investigated for their 222Rn concentrations using liquid scintillation counter manufactured by Packard Instrument Company. The concentration of 222Rn in the well water samples was found to vary in the range 3.0± 2.00 – 18.24± 1.50 Bq/L and a mean concentration of 9.64 Bq/L with An average mean concentration of 10.23 Bq/L recorded respectively. The results showed that 222Rn concentration in well water sources were greater than the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 11.1Bq/L set by USEPA and 10.0 Bq/L set by WHO. The annual effective dose by ingestion for adult male was found to be in the range 0.0198 mSv/y to 0.1198 mSv/yand an average of 0.0721 mSv/y which are lower than the annually received effective dose as set by ICRP.
222Rn, Groundwater, Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC), Effective Dose
To cite this article
Philip Musa Gyuk, Arome Aruwa, Matoh Dary Dogara, Isaac Hyuk Daniel, Annual Effective Dose of Radon-222 in Well Water Samples in Male Adults: Idah, Nigeria, American Journal of Optics and Photonics. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 45-49. doi: 10.11648/j.ajop.20170504.13
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Gundersen, L. C. S.; Schumann, R. R.; Otton, J. K.; Owen, D. E.; Dubiel, R. F.; Dickinson, K. A. (1992). Geology of radon in the United States. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 271: 1–16.
Choubey, V. M. and Ramola, R. C. (1997). Correlation between geology and radon levels in groundwater, soil and indoor air in Bhilangana Valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Environ. Geol. 32: 258–262.
Choubey, V. M.; Sharma, K. K.; Ramola, R. C. (1997). Geology of radon occurrence around Jari in Parvati Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India. J. Environ. Radioact. 34: 139–147.
Skeppström, K. and Olofsson, B. (2007). Uranium and radon in ground water. Eur. Water 17: 51–62.
Hoehn, E.; von Gunten, H. R.; Stauffer, F.; Dracos, T. (1992). Radon-222 as a groundwater tracer. A laboratory study. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1992, 26: 734–738.
Crawford-Brown, D. J. (1991). Risk and Uncertainty Analysis for Radon in Drinking Water; Final Report; American Water Works Association: Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1991. National primary drinking water regulations for radionuclide. US Government printing office, Washington D. C. EPA/570/991/700.
Yu, D.; Kim, K. J. (2004). A Physiologically based assessment of human exposure to radon released from groundwater. Chemosphere, 54, 639–645.
Council Directive 2013/51/EURATOM of 22 October 2013 Laying Down Requirements for the Protection of the Health of the General Public with Regard to Radioactive Substances in Water Intended for Human Consumption. Available (accesed on 18th September, 2017).
Moreno, V.; Bach, J.; Baixeras, C.; Font, L. (2014). Radon levels in groundwaters and natural radioactivity in soils of the volcanic region of La Garrotxa, Spain. J. Environ. Radioact. 128: 1–8.
Corrêa, J.; Paschuk, S.; Kappke, J.; Perna, A.; França, A.; Schelin, H.; Denyak, V. (2014). Measurements of 222Rn activity in well water of the Curitiba metropolitan area (Brazil). Radiat. Phys. Chem. 104: 108–111.
Cosma, C.; Moldovan, M.; Dicu, T.; Kovacs, T. (2008) Radon in water from Transylvania (Romania). Radiat. Meas. 43: 1423–1428.
Papastefanou, C. (2002). An overview of instrumentation for measuring radon in soil gas and groundwaters. J. Environ. Radioact. 63: 271–283.
Talha, S. A.; Lindsay, R.; Newman, R. T.; de Meijer, R. J.; Maleka, P. P.; Hlatshwayo, I. N.; Mlwilo, N. A.; Mohanty, A. K. (2008). Ray spectrometry of radon in water and the role of radon to representatively sample aquifers. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 66: 1623–1626.
National Population Commission (NPC) 2006. National Population Commission Enumerated Area Demarcation Exercise.
McCurry, P. 1976. The Geology of the Precambrian to lower Paleozoic rocks of Northern Nigeria. A review in Kogbe, C. A. (second edition), Geology of Nigeria. Elizabethan publication company Lagos, pp 13 – 37.
Adams, N. B. (2010). An Analysis of the Location Pattern of Informal Automobile Artisans Workplaces in Idah, Kogi State. Unpublish MSc. Thesis.
Paul, B. H. and Stephen, H. P. (1991). Determination of Radon in Drinking Water by Liquid Scintillation Counting Method 913.0. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Isam, S. M. M. (2003). Radon in Natural Waters Analytical Methods; Correlation to Environmental Parameters; Radiation Dose Estimation and GIS Application. Unpublished PhD Thesis.
World Health Organization (WHO), 1993. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. vol. 1, 2nd edition.
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (1993). Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. UNSCEAR Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes, United Nations, New York.
ICRP, 2005. International Commission on Radiation Protection, Annals of ICRP 60: 411 – 440.
Berezina, E. V. and E lansky, N. F. (2014). 222Rn Concentration in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Over Continental Russia from Observations in TROICA Experiments. Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 45: 757.
Garba, N. N., Rabiu, N., Dewu, B. B. M., Sadiq, U., Yamusa, Y. A. (2013). Radon Assessment in Ground water Sources from Zaria and Environs, Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 8 (42): 1983 – 1987.
Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) (2003). Inorganic Constituents for Drinking Water Quality.
Oni, E. A., Oni, O. M., Oladapo, O. O., Olatunde, I. D., Adediwura, F. E. (2016). Measurement of Radon Concentration in Drinking Water of Ado - Ekiti, Nigeria. Journal of Academia and Industrial Research, 4 (8): 190 – 192.
Oni, O. M., Oladapo, O. O., Amuda, D. B., Oni, E. A., Adelodun, A. O. O., Adewale, K. Y., Fasina, M. O. (2014). Radon Concentration in Ground water of Areas of High Background Radiation Level in South Western Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Physics, 25 (1): 64 – 67.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186