Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies on the Removal of Safranin-O from Waste Water Using Activated Carbons Derived from Coconut Shell and Pineapple Peel
American Journal of Physical Chemistry
Volume 8, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 1-10
Received: Dec. 14, 2018; Accepted: Jan. 9, 2019; Published: Jan. 30, 2019
Views 817      Downloads 203
Jibrin Mohammed, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural & Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Ufaruna Idrisu Noah, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural & Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Isah Jibrin, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural & Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Kabiru Suleiman Madaki, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Natural & Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Stephen Ingedu Audu, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural & Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
This work is aimed at comparing the adsorption capacities of the activated carbons derived from coconut shell and pineapple peels using Safranin-O as adsorbate. Physical activation method was employed to generate the activated carbons using phosphoric acid (H3 PO4) as activating agent. Batch adsorption experiment was employed for the adsorption process. Effects of experimental factors such as adsorbent dosage, inititial Safranin-O dye concentration, pH and contact time on the adsorption process were examined. The results showed that the adsorption capacities were dependent on these factors. Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms Models were applied and the results indicated that both models fitted well with the observed data but Freundlich Model fitted better. Pseudo first and second order kinetic models were also applied to describe the adsorption kinetic, only the second order model fitted well with the experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (∆H), Gibb’s free energy change (∆G) and entropy change (∆S) were evaluated using Van’t Hoff equations, both the free energy and enthalpy change were found to be negative indicating the feasibility and exorthermic nature of the adsorption process respectively. While the entropy change was found to be positive indicating that the degree of dispersion in the adsorption process increased with increase in temperature, Based on the results obtained from this research work, the activated carbon derived from coconut shell (CSAC) showed better adsorbent when compared with the one derived from pineapple peel (PPAC) as CSAC recorded the highest percentage of Safranin-O dye removal from waste water under all the experimental conditions.
Safranin-O, Removal, Activated Carbon, Coconut Shell, Pineapple Peel
To cite this article
Jibrin Mohammed, Ufaruna Idrisu Noah, Isah Jibrin, Kabiru Suleiman Madaki, Stephen Ingedu Audu, Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies on the Removal of Safranin-O from Waste Water Using Activated Carbons Derived from Coconut Shell and Pineapple Peel, American Journal of Physical Chemistry. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2019, pp. 1-10. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpc.20190801.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Mohammed, M. A., Ibrahim, A. & Shitu, A. (2014). Batch removal of hazardous Safranin-O in wastewater using pineapple peels as an agricultural waste based adsorbent. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 2(3), 128-133.
Malik, R. Ramteke, Wat, D. S. & Erl, S. R. (2007). Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon. Waste Management, 27(9), 1129-1138.
Abdul Wahab, O., El-Nemr, A., El-Sikaily, A. & Khaled, A. (2005). Use of rice husk for adsorption of direct dyes from aqueous solution: A case study of direct f. scarlet. Egypt. Journal of Aquatic Research, 3(1), 1110-1354.
Abdullah, L. A. G., Mohd, Salleh, Siti, Mazlina, Mohd-Noor, J. M. & Osman, M. R. (2005). Azo dye removal by adsorption using waste biomass: Sugarcane bagasse. Int. Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2(1), 8-13.
Aci, F., Nebioglu, M., Arslan, M., Imamoglu, M., Zengin, M. & Kucukislamoglu, M. (2008). Preparation of activated carbon from sugar beet molasses and adsorption of methylene blue. Environmental Bulletin, 17, 997-1001.
Ansari, R. & Mosayebzadeh, Z. (2010). Removal of basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions using sawdust and sawdust coated with polypyrrole. J. Iran. Chem. Soc., 7 (2), 339-350.
Basar, C. A. (2006). Applicability of the various adsorption models of three dyes adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from waste apricot. J. Hazard Matter, 135, 232-241.
Bayazi, S. (2013). “Investigation of Safranin-Oadsorption on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) and multi-wall carbon nanotube /SPION Composites,” Desalin. Water Treat. pp. 1–10.
Babel, S. & Kurniawan, T. A. (2004). Cr(VI) Removal From Synthetic Wastewater using Coconut Shell Charcoal and Commercial Activated Carbon Modified with Oxidizing Agents and/or Chitosan. Chemosphere, 54, 951–967.
Aksu, Z. (2001). Equilibrium and kinetics modeling of cadmium (II) biosorption by C. Vulgaris in a batch system: Effect of temperatures. Sep. and Purif. Tech., 21, 285-294.
Arivoli, S. & Thenkuzhali, M.( 2008). Kinetic, mechanistic, thermodynamic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of rhodamine B by acid activated lowcost carbon. E-jour. Chem., 5(2), 187-200.
Bansal, M., Singh, D., Garg, V. K. & Rose, P. (2009). Equilibrium and kinetic studies on the adsorption of methylene blue using orange peels activated carbon. Int. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, 1(2), 108 – 114.
Kardivelu, K., Kavipriya, M., Karthika, C., Radhika, M. Vennilamani, N. a& Pattabhi, S. (2003). Utilization of various agricultural wastes for activated carbon preparation and application for the removal of dyes and metal ions from aqueous solutions. Bioresoruce Technology, 87(1), 129-132.
AOAC, (1990). Association of Official Analylical Chemist. Official Method of Analysis 15th Edn. Washinton D. C 147-158.
Gupta, R. & Mohapatra, H. (2003). Microial Biomass: An Economical Alternative for Removal of heavy metals from waste water. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 41, 945 – 966.
Itodo, U. A. (2010). Comparative studies on the preparation, adsorption and evaluation of activated carbon from selected animals and agricultural wastes. a PhD thesis, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.
Al-Othman, Z. A., Ali, R. & Navshat, Mu.(2012). Hexavalent chromium removal from aqeuous medium by activated carbon prepared from peanut shell: Adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 184, 238 – 247.
Andre, L. Cazetta, Alexandro, M. M., Vargas, Eurica, Nogami, M., Marcos, H. Kunita, Tais, L. Silva, et al.(2011). NaOH – activated carbon of high surface area produced from coconut shell: Kinetic and equilibrium studies from the methylene blue adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal, 174, 117-125.
Emad, N. El-Qada, Stephen, J. Allen, Gavin, M. Walker (2006). Adsorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon produced from steam activated bituminous coal: A study of equilibrium adsorption isotherm. Chemical Engineering Journal, 124, 103 – 110.
Ahmad, A. A. & Hameed, B. H. (2009). Reduction of COD and colour of dyeing effluent from a cotton textile mill by adsorption onto bamboo-based activated carbon. J. Hazard. Mater. 172, – 154.
Nadeem, R., Hanif, M. A., Shaheen, F., Perveen, S., Zafar, M. N., & Iqbal, T. (2008). Physical and chemical modification of distillery sludge for Pb(II) biosorption. Journal of Hazardous Material, 150, 335 –342.
Okoli, C. A., Onukwuli, O. D., Okey-Onyesolu, C. F. & Okoye, C. C. (2015). Adsorptive removal of dyes from synthetic wastewater using activated carbon from tamarind seed. European Scientific Journal, 11(18), 1857-1859.
Robinson, T., Chandran, B. & Nigam, P. (2002). Studies on desorption of individual textile dyes and synthetic dye effluent from dye adsorbed-agricultural residues using solvents. Bioresour Technol, 84, 299–301.
Savas, Sener (2008). Use of solid waste of the soda ash plant as an adsorbent for the removal of anionic dye: Equilibrium and kineticstudies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 138, 207 – 214.
Ponnusami, V., Vikiram, S. & Srivastava, S. N. (2008). Guava psidium guajava leaf powder: Novel adsorbent for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Maters, 152, 276–286.
Edokpayi, O., Osemwenkhae, O; Ayodele, B. V; Ossai, J., Fadilat, S. A., Ogbeide, S. E(2018). Batch Adsorption Study of Methylene Blue in Aqueous Solution using Activated Carbons from Rice Husk and Coconut Shell. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage, Vol. 22(5)63– 635.
Dalia, K. Maamoud, Mohammad, Amran, Mohasalleh, W. Azlina, Wari, A. Karima, A. Idris & Zurina, Z. Abidin (2012). Batch adsorption of basic dye using acid treated fibre char: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Chemical Engineering Journal 181, 449 – 457.
Ejikeme, M. Ebere, Ejikeme, P. C. N., Abalu, Benjamin. N. (2014). Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies on MB adsorption using hamburger seed shell activated carbon. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 14(3), 74-83.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186