Mechanical Strengthening and Microstructural Evolutions of Ni-B Based Hardfacing Alloys Influenced by Titanium Additions
Advances in Materials
Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 41-47
Received: Jan. 31, 2019;
Accepted: Mar. 11, 2019;
Published: Apr. 13, 2019
Views 505 Downloads 80
Zeblon Meshack Ebimobowei, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Ajenifuja Emmanuel, Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa
Ajao John Adegbindin, Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
The microstructure and mechanical behaviour of Ni-B binary alloys have been enhanced in this study by varied titanium additions. The alloys investigated were chosen from the nickel-rich region of the Ni-B-Ti system. The microstructure of the alloys was examined using Optical Microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analyzer (EDXA). The addition of titanium led to the formation of various complex phases and a ternary phase τ was observed in the study. The addition of titanium to the Ni-B alloys was found to enhance the mechanical properties of the ternary alloys. Microhardness value of the alloys was observed to increase from 216.2 HV with zero Ti in Ni-B alloys to 1530.7 HV in alloys with 11 wt. % Ti. The stiffness of the alloys was also found to increase as deduced from elastic modulus value of 513.77 to 1046.51 N/m2 in Alloys C. Remarkable improvement in physical properties of the Ni-based ternary alloys is due to the formation of various hard boride phases and grain size reduction occasioned by the increase in titanium content.
Zeblon Meshack Ebimobowei,
Ajao John Adegbindin,
Mechanical Strengthening and Microstructural Evolutions of Ni-B Based Hardfacing Alloys Influenced by Titanium Additions, Advances in Materials.
Vol. 8, No. 2,
2019, pp. 41-47.
E. Lugscheider, O. Knotek and K. Klohn, "Development of Ni-Cr-Si base Filler Metals," J. Weld. Res. Supp. 57 (1978) 319-325.
R. González, M. A. García, I. Peñuelas, M. Cadenas, M. D. R. Fernández, A. H. Battez and D. Felgueroso, "Microstructural study of NiCrBSi coatings obtained by different processes," Wear 263 (2007) 619–624.
O. Knotek, E. Lugscheider and W. Wichert, "On the structure and properties of wear and corrosion resistant Ni-Cr-W-C-Si alloys," Thin Solid Films 53 (1978) 303-312.
E. Fernández, M. Cadenas, R. González, C. Navas, R. Fernández and J. d. Damborenea, "Wear behaviour of laser clad NiCrBSi coating," Wear 259 (2005) 870–875.
E. Ajenifuja, G. A. Osinkolu, A. Y. Fasasi, D. A. Pelemo and E. I. Obiajunwa, "Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and structural analysis of DC reactive magnetron sputtered titanium nitride thin films on glass substrates," J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 27 (2016) 335.
E. Ajenifuja, A. P. I. Popoola and O. M. Popoola, "Thickness dependent chemical and microstructural properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered titanium nitride thin films on low carbon steel cross-section," J. Mater. Res. Technol., (2018). doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.02.010.
O. Knotek, H. Reimann and P. Lohage, "Reactions between Ni-Cr-B -Si matrixes and carbide additives in coating during fusion treatment," Thin Solid Films, 83 (1981) 361-367.
M. E. Zeblon, E. Ajenifuja and J. A. Ajao, "Thermal and Microstructural Study of Slowly Cooled Ni-B Hard Alloys Containing," J. Mater. Res. Technol. (2018). doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2017.09.011
J. A. Ajao, "Phase transitions in some nickel-rich nickel–boron–titanium hard alloys," J Alloys Compd. 493 (2009) 314-321.
J. A. Ajao, "Preparation and structural characterization of vanadium doped Ni-B binary hard alloys," J. Minerals & Mater Characterization & Eng. 9 (2010) 559-568.
F. Otsubo, H. Era and V. (. Kishitake, "Structure and phases in Nickel-base self fluxing alloy coating containing high chromium and boron," J Ther Spray Technol. 9 (2000) 107–113.
A. N. Campbell, A. W. Mullendore, C. R. Hills and J. B. Vandersande, "The effect of boron on the microstructure and physical properties of chemically vapour deposited Nickel Films," J of Mater Sci. 23 (1988) 4049-4058.
Y. Wang and W. Chen, "Microstructures, properties and high-temperature carburization resistances of HVOF thermal sprayed NiAl intermetallic-based alloy coatings," Surf Coat Technol. 183 (2004) 18–28.
T. S. Sidhu and S. Prakash, "Hot corrosion and performance of nickel-based coatings," Current Sci 90 (2006) 41-47.
Y. I. An, H. Y. Du, Y. H. Wei, N. Yang, L. F. Hou and W. M. Lin, "Interfacial structure and mechanical properties of surface iron–nickel alloying layer in pure iron fabricated by surface mechanical attrition alloy treatment," Materials & Design, 46 (2013) 627-633.
S. Lebaili, J. A. Ajao and S. Hamar-Thibault, "Preparation and characterization of meltspun nickel-based alloys containing heavy metals," J Alloys Compd. 188 (1992) 87-93.
L. Battezzati, C. Antonione and M. Baricco, "Undercooling of NiB and FeB alloys and their metastable phase diagrams," J Alloys Compd. 247 (1997) 164–171.
A. Contreras, C. Leon, O. Jimenez, E. Sosa and R. Perez, "Electrochemical behavior and microstructural characterization of 1026 Ni–B coated steel," Applied Surf. Sc. 253 (2006) 592-599.
K. Krishnaveni, T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan and S. K. Seshadri, "Electroless Ni–B coatings: preparation and evaluation of hardness and wear resistance," Surf. Coat. Technol. 190 (2005) 115-121.
V. Vitry, A. F. Kanta, J. Dille and F. Delaunois, "Wear and corrosion resistance of heat treated and as-plated duplex NiP-NiB coatings on 2024 aluminium alloy," Surf. Coat. Technol. 206 (2012) 3444-3451.
B. Oraon, G. Majumdar and B. Ghosh, "Parametric optimization and prediction of electroless Ni-B deposition.," Mater. & Design, 28 (2007) 2138-2145.
B. Oraon, G. Majumdar and B. Ghosh, "Improving hardness of electroless Ni–B coatings using optimized deposition conditions and annealing," Mater. & Design, 29 (2008) 1412-1418.
T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan, A. Stephan and S. Guruskanthan, "Electroless Ni–Co–B ternary alloy deposits: preparation and characteristics," Surf. Coat. Technol. 179 (2004) 56-62.
Y. N. Bekish, S. K. Poznyak, L. S. Tsybulskaya and T. V. Gaevskaya, "Electrodeposited Ni–B alloy coatings: structure, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties," Electrochimica Acta, 7 (2010) 2223-2231.
K. Krishnaveni, T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan and S. K. Seshadri, "Electrodeposited Ni–B–Si3N4 composite coating: Preparation and evaluation of its characteristic properties," J. Alloys Compd. 466 (2008) 412-420.
F. Delaunois, J. P. Petitjean, P. Lienard and M. J. Duliere, "Autocatalytic electroless nickel-boron plating on light alloys," Surf. Coat. Technol. 124 (2000) 201-209.
T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan and S. K. Seshadri, "Formation and characterization of borohydride reduced electroless nickel deposits," J. Alloys Compd. 365 (2004) 197-205.
T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan, K. Krishnaveni and S. K. Seshadri, "Electroless Ni–P/Ni–B duplex coatings: preparation and evaluation of microhardness, wear and corrosion resistance," Mater. Chem. Phy. 82 (2003) 771-779.
K. M. Gorbunova, M. V. Ivanov and V. P. Moiseev, "Electroless deposition of Nickel‐Boron alloys mechanism of process, structure, and some properties of deposits," J. Electrochem. Soc. 120 (1973) 613-618.
C. R. Das, S. K. Albert, A. K. Bhaduri, C. Sudha and A. L. E. Terrance, "Characterisation of nickel based hardfacing deposits on austenitic stainless steel," Surface Engineering, 21 (2013) 290-296.
S. Atamert and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, "Nickel based hardfacing alloys for high temperature applications," Materials Science and Technology 12 (2013) 1220-1228.
K. Gurumoorthy, M. Kamaraj, K. P. Rao and S. Venugopal, "Microstructure and wear characteristics of nickel based hardfacing alloys deposited by plasma transferred arc welding," Materials Science and Technology 22 (2013) 975-980.
C. R. Das, S. K. Albert, A. K. Bhaduri and R. Nithya, "Effects of dilution on microstructure and wear behaviour of NiCr hardface deposits," Materials Science and Technology 23 (2013) 771-779.
L. J. da Silva and A. S. C. M. D’Oliveira, "NiCrSiBC alloy: microstructure and hardness of coatings processed by arc and laser," Welding International 31 (2016) 1-8.
W. Wu and L. T. Wu, "The wear behavior between hardfacing materials," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 27 (1996) 3639–3648.
P. Aubry, C. Blanc, I. Demirci, M. Dal, T. Malot and H. Maskrot, "Analysis of nickel base hardfacing materials manufactured by laser cladding for sodium fast reactor," Physics Procedia 83 (2016) 613-623.
M. J. Donachie, Titanium: A Technical Guide, USA: ASM International, 2000.
G. Lutjering and J. C. Williams, Titanium, Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag, 2007.
S. Ankem and C. A. Greene, "Recent Development in Microstructure/Property Relationships of Beta Titanium Alloys," Materials Science and Engineering A 263 (1999) 127-131.
O. M. Ivasishin, P. E. Markovsky, Y. V. Matviychuk, S. L. Semiatin, C. H. Ward and S. Fox, "A Comparative Study of the Mechanical Properties of High Strength Beta Titanium Alloys," J. Alloys Compd 457 (2008) 296-309.
V. J. Tennery, C. B. Finch, C. S. Yust and G. W. Clark, Science of Hard Materials, New York: Plenum, 1983.
Z. Muzaffer and K. Erdem, "Influence of Ti addition on the microstructure and hardness properties of near-eutectic Al–Si alloys," J. Alloys Compd 450 (2008) 255-259.
R. A. Shakoor, R. Kahraman, U. S. Waware, Y. Wang and W. Gao, "Synthesis and properties of electrodeposited Ni-B-Zn ternary alloy coatings," Int. J Electrochem. Sci. 9 (2014) 5520 – 5536.
J. Schobel and H. Stadelmaier, "The Nickel-Boron-Titanium Ternary System," Metallurgy 7 (1965) 715-719.
N. Saheb, T. Laoui, A. R. Daud, M. Harun, S. Radiman and R. Yahaya, "Influence of Ti addition on wear properties of Al-Si eutectic Alloys," Wear 249 (2001) 656-662.
C. Viega, J. P. Davim and A. J. R. Loureiro, "Properties and applications of titanium alloys," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sc. 32 (2012) 133-148.
S. Hou, Z. Liu, D. Liu and Y. Ma, "Oxidation Behavior of NiAl-TiB2 Coatings Prepared by Electrothermal Explosion Ultrahigh Speed Spraying," Physics Procedia, 32 (2012) 71-77.
A. P. I. Popoola, S. L. Pityana and O. M. Popoola, "Microstructure and corrosion properties of Al(Ni/TiB2) intermetallic matrix composite coatings," The Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 111 (2011) 345-353.
R. G. Munro, "Material Properties of Titanium Diboride," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105 (2000) 709-720.
M. N. Mokgalaka, S. L. Pityana, A. P. I. Popoola and T. Mathebula, "NiTi Intermetallic Surface Coatings by Laser Metal Deposition for Improving Wear Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Substrates," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 2014 (2014) 1-8.