An Enhanced Vitality Efficient and Reliable Wireless Sensor Networks with CRT-Based Packet Breaking Scheme
International Journal of Sensors and Sensor Networks
Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 26-37
Received: Jun. 17, 2018; Accepted: Jul. 5, 2018; Published: Sep. 15, 2018
Views 567      Downloads 79
Kamaldeen Ayodele Raji, Department of Computer Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria
Kazeem Alagbe Gbolagade, Department of Computer Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria
Fatimoh Abidemi Taofeek-Ibrahim, Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of a large number of wireless sensor nodes dispersed in an area of interest with one or more base stations mainly used in monitoring our environment and also for physical conditions. It has been established that energy is the most constraining factor on the functionality of such networks because they are powered with limited energy and replacement of power resources might be unfeasible. Duty Cycling and In-Network Aggregation could be used to reduce energy consumption but energy saving is obtained at the expense of an increased node complexity and network latency. However, in order to reduce energy consumption and increase reliability, nodes only need to send small packet to the sink. A secured and energy efficient wireless sensor network using Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) based packet splitting algorithm is therefore proposed. This technique involves splitting the messages sent by the source node of a wireless sensor network so that the maximum number of bits per packet that a node has to forward is reduced which decreases the energy consumption of the network. However, it also increases the message security because the remainders of sensed data are sent instead of data itself, the received packet is encrypted and for decrypt the message, need to have the moduli set which serves as the secret key. The results obtained shows the proposed algorithm outperforms traditional approaches in terms of energy saving, reliability, simplicity and fair distribution of energy consumption among all nodes in the network as well as reduction in end-to-end delay.
Energy Efficiency, Reliability, Packet Breaking, Chinese Remainder Theorem, Wireless Sensor Networks
To cite this article
Kamaldeen Ayodele Raji, Kazeem Alagbe Gbolagade, Fatimoh Abidemi Taofeek-Ibrahim, An Enhanced Vitality Efficient and Reliable Wireless Sensor Networks with CRT-Based Packet Breaking Scheme, International Journal of Sensors and Sensor Networks. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018, pp. 26-37. doi: 10.11648/j.ijssn.20180602.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
R. Logapriya and J. Preethi, Efficient Methods in wireless sensor network for error detection, correction and recovery of data. International Journal of Novel Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering. Vol 3 Issue 2, pp: (47-54), May -August 2016. Available at:
S. Sharma and S. Sharma, A Comparative Review on Reliability and Fault Tolerance Enhancement Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 2016, e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 03 Issue: 01, Pp 622- 626.
G. Campobello, A. Leonardi and S. Palazzo, A novel reliable and energy-saving forwarding technique for wireless sensor networks, Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc ’09), 2009, pp. 269–278.
M. A. Kianifar, D. R Naji and M. V. Malakooti, Multi-Agent and Clustering Based Wireless Sensor Network. Research Journal of Fishery and Hydrobiology, 2015, Vol. 10, Issue 9, Pp 240-246.
H. Lee, S. D. Min, M. Choi and D. Lee, Multi-Agent System for Fault Tolerance in Wireless Sensor Networks, KSII transactions on internet and information systems, 2016, vol. 10, No. 3.
R. V. Kshirsagar and A. B. Jirapure, A Survey on Fault Detection and Fault Tolerance in Wireless Sensor Networks, International Conference on Benchmarks in Engineering Science and Technology ICBEST 2012 Proceedings published by International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA).
V. K. Sachan, S. A. Imam and M. T. Beg, Energy-efficient Communication Methods in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Critical Review. International Journal of Computer Applications Volume 39, No. 17, Pp 35-48, 2012.
M. Manisha and D. Nandal, Fault detection in wireless sensor networks, IPASJ International Journal of Computer Science, ISSN 2321-5992, Volume 3, Issue 3 Pp 5-10, 2015.
B. Arutselvan and R. Maheswari, Crt Based Rsa Algorithm For Improving Reliability And Energy Efficiency With Kalman Filter In Wireless Sensor Networks, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), 2013, Volume 4 Issue 5, Pp 1924-1929.
G. Anastasi, M. Conti, M. Di Francesco, and A. Passarella, How to Prolong the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network. Handbook of Mobile Ad Hoc and Pervasive Communications. Chapter 6 in Mobile Ad Hoc and Pervasive Communications, (M. Denko and L. Yang, Editors), American Scientific Publishers, 2007.
E. Fasolo et al, In-network Aggregation Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey. IEEE wireless communications, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2007, pp 70-87.
A. Barati, A. Movaghar and M. Sabaei, Energy Efficient and High Speed Error Control Scheme for Real Time Wirless Sensor Networks. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Volume 2014.
G. Campobello, S. Serrano, A. Leonardi and S. Palazzo, Trade-Offs between Energy Saving and Reliability in Low Duty Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Packet Splitting Forwarding Technique, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Volume 2010, doi:10. 1155/2010/932345.
M. Roshanzadeh and S. Saqaeeyan, Error detection and correction in wireless sensor networks by residue number systems. International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security, 2, 29-35, 2012.
K. A Gbolagade and D. S Cantofana, A Reverse Converter for the New 4-Moduli Set, 2009.
O. T Olabanji, K. A. Gbolagade and A. Yunus, Redundant Residue Number System Based Fault Tolerant Architecture over Wireless, in the proceedings of Ibadan ACM, Computing Research and Innovation (CoRI'16), 2016, Pp 212-216.
A. Omondi and B. Premkumar. Residue Number System: Theory and Implementation. Imperial College Press, London, 2007.
G. Campobello and A.Leonardi. OntheuseofChineseRemainderTheoremforenergysavinginwirelesssensornetworks ICC'08. IEEE, 2008.
J. Anton Bose. Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks using packet splitting technique International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 6 (6), 2015, 4874-4877
T. Sangeetha tamilmozhi and R. Pugazendi, "An Adaptive Energy Efficient Packet Forwarding Method for Wireless Sensor Networks", International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science ISSN: 2319-7242 Volume 2 Issue 8 August, 2013 Page No. 2424-2429.
G. Campobello, S. Serrano, L. Galluccio, S. Palazzo, Applying the Chinese remainder theorem to data aggregation in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Commun. Lett. 2013, 17(5), 1000–1003.
B. Parhami, Computer Arithmetic: Algorithm and Hardware Designs, Oxford University Press, New York 2000. G. Campobello, A. Leonardi, S. Palazzo, Improving energy saving and reliability in wireless sensor networks using a simple crt-based packet-forwarding solution. IEEE ACM Trans. 2012, Netw. 20(1), 191–205.
N. K. Singh, A. Singh & P. Foujdar, Improving Reliability in WSN by Collaborating Robust Data Aggregation and CRT-based Packet Forwarding Technique, IJLTEMAS, Volume III, Issue III, March 2014.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-983-5186