A Multi-interface Multi-channel Algorithm to Count Nodes Using Wireless Technology
American Journal of Networks and Communications
Volume 6, Issue 1, February 2017, Pages: 1-19
Received: Sep. 28, 2016;
Accepted: Oct. 10, 2016;
Published: Feb. 23, 2017
Views 2718 Downloads 108
Manuel Contreras, School of Computer Science, Central University of Venezuela, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas, Venezuela
Eric Gamess, School of Computer Science, Central University of Venezuela, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas, Venezuela; Department of Computer Science, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico
In wireless networks, devices can be equipped with multiple interfaces to utilize multiple channels and increase the aggregated network throughput. In fact, as the current price of network interface cards has fallen dramatically, applications have started to use multiple non-overlapping channels to get an enhanced bandwidth, with traditional standards such as IEEE 802.11 a/b/g. In this regard, a wireless network node equipped with more than one interface can concurrently communicate with other nodes on different channels. This operation results in less interference and collisions in the network, and therefore a better use of the network capabilities in terms of bandwidth. In this paper we propose an algorithm that uses multiple channels to improve performance in the counting of objects (people, animals, devices, vehicles, etc) based on wireless communications where devices are equipped with multiple interfaces, which works either for stationary nodes or in scenarios where nodes are moving even at high speeds. In particular, the technique of interface switching is used to take advantage of all the channels, even when the number of available interfaces is smaller than the number of channels. To validate and evaluate the performance and accuracy of the proposal, the algorithm is simulated using a famous network simulation tool called OMNeT++/INET. The results of the simulations show that the proposed algorithm efficiently exploits the advantages of multi-channel, by computing a number of nodes very close to the real one (even in the case of scenarios with nodes moving at high speeds) with an acceptable response time and total number of control messages sent by the nodes to accomplish the counting task.
A Multi-interface Multi-channel Algorithm to Count Nodes Using Wireless Technology, American Journal of Networks and Communications.
Vol. 6, No. 1,
2017, pp. 1-19.
S. Kakumanu. “Algorithms and Protocols for Multi-Channel Wireless Networks”. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Georgia Institute of Technology. December 2011.
J. Bicket, D. Aguayo, S. Biswas, and R. Morris. “Architecture and Evaluation of an Unplanned 802.11b Mesh Network”. In Proceedings of the 11th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 2005), Cologne, Germany, September 2005, pp. 31–42.
C. Lochert, B. Scheuermann, C. Wewetzer, A. Luebke, and M. Mauve. “Data Aggregation and Roadside Unit Placement for a VANET Traffic Information System”. In Proceedings of the fifth ACM International Workshop on VehiculAr Inter-Networking, New York, NY, USA 2008, pp. 58–65.
A. Raniwala and C. Tzi-cker. “Architecture and Algorithms for IEEE 802.11 based Multi-Channel Wireless Mesh Network”. In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM 2005). Vol. 3, Miami, FL, USA, March 2005, pp. 2223-2234.
P. Bahl, A. Adya, J. Padhye, and A. Walman. “Reconsidering Wireless Systems with Multiple Radios”. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review. Vol. 34, No. 5, October 2004, pp. 39–46.
S. Pollak and V. Wieser. “Interference Reduction Channel Assignment Algorithm for Multi-Interface Wireless Mesh Networks”. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference Radioelektronika 2012, Brno, Czech Republic, April 2012.
B. Barekatain, M. Aizaini, A. Ariza, A. Triviño, and H. Ghaeini. “An Enhanced Multi-interface Multi-channel Algorithm for High Quality Live Video Streaming over Hybrid WMNs”. Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences, 2014, In press.
J. So and N. Vaidya. “Multi-Channel MAC for Ad Hoc Networks: Handling Multichannel Hidden Terminals using a Single Transceiver”. In Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing. New York, NY, USA, May 2004, pp. 222–233.
A. Nasipuri, J. Zhuang, and S. Das. “A Multichannel CSMA MAC Protocol for Multihop Wireless Networks”. In Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 1999). New Orleans, LA, USA, September 1999, Vol. 3, pp. 1042-1406.
A. Nasipuri and S. Das. “Multichannel CSMA with Signal Power-based Channel Selection for Multihop Wireless Networks”. In Proceedings of the 52nd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC), Boston, MA, USA, September 2000, Vol. 1, pp. 211–218.
N. Jain, S. Das, and A. Nasipuri. “A Multichannel CSMA MAC Protocol with Receiver-based Channel Selection for Multihop Wireless Networks”. In Proceediongs of the 9th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICSN), Scottsdale, AZ, USA, October 2001.
S.-L. Wu, C.-Y. Lin, Y. C. Tseng, and J. P. Sheu. “A New Multi-Channel MAC Protocol with On-Demand Channel Assignment for Multi-Hop Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”. In Proceedings of the 2000 International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms and Networks (ISPAN’00), Dallas/Richardson, TX, USA, December 2000.
U. Lee, S. Midkiff, and J. Park. “A Proactive Routing Protocol for Multi-Channel Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks”. In Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC’05). Las Vegas, NV, USA, April 2005, Vol. 2, pp. 710–715.
P. Kyasanur and N. Vaidya. “Routing and Interface Assignment in Multi-Channel Multi-Interface Wireless Networks”. In Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2005), New Orleans, LA, USA, March 2005, Vol. 4, pp. 2051–2056.
D. Yong K. Pongaliur, and X. Li. “Channel Allocation and Routing in Hybrid Multichannel Multiradio Wireless Mesh Networks”. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. Vol. 12, No. 2, February 2013, pp. 206-218.
P. Kyasanur and N. Vaidya. “Routing and Link-Layer Protocols for Multi-Channel Multi-Interface Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”. ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communication Review. Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2006, pp. 31-43.
H. Mogaibel, M. Othman, S. Subramaniam, and N. Hamid. “Impact of the Hybrid Multi-channel Multi-interface Wireless Mesh Network on ETX-Based Metrics Performance”. Electrical Power Systems and Computers. Vol. 99, 2011, pp. 147-160.
L. Minglu and F. Yunxia. “Design and Implementation of a Hybrid Channel-Assignment Protocol for a Multi-Interface Wireless Mesh Network”. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. Vol. 59, No. 6. July 2010, pp. 2986-2997.
G. Leduc. “Road Traffic Data: Collection Methods and Applications”. European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, Spain, 2008.
C. Chao-Ho, C. Yin-Chan, C. Tsong-Yi, and W. Da-Jinn. “People Counting System for Getting In/Out of a Bus based on Video Processing”. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA 2008). Kaohsiung, Taiwan, November 2008, Vol. 3, pp. 565-569.
K. Chi. “Moving Object Counting with an Infrared Sensor Network”. A Thesis Submitted to The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for The Degree of Master of Philosophy in Computer Science and Engineering. Hong Kong, August 2007.
J. W. Kim, K. S. Choi, B. D. Choi, and S. J. Ko. “Real-time Vision-based People Counting System for the Security Door”. In Proceedings International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems Computers and Communications, Phuket, Thailand, July 2002, pp. 1416-1419.
T. Marques, L. Thomas, S. Martin, D. Mellinger, I. Ward, D. Moretti, D. Harris, and P. Tyack. “Estimating Animal Population Density using Passive Acoustics”. Biological Reviews. Vol. 88, 2013, pp. 287-309.
H. Gross, P. Hunel, N. Vidot, and E. Stattner. “Acoustic Counting Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks”. In Proceedings of the 6th ACM Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous Networks (PE-WASUN ’09), New York, NY, USA, 2009, pp. 79-84.
A. Knaian. “A Wireless Sensor Network for Smart Roadbeds and Intelligent Transportation Systems”. Master Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA, June 2000.
E. Gamess and M. Contreras. “A Proposal for an Algorithm to Count Nodes using Wireless Technologies”. International Journal of High Performance Computing and Networking. International Journal of High Performance Computing and Networking, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 345-357, 2015.
M. Contreras and E. Gamess. “Algoritmo para Contar Nodos en Redes Inalámbricas con Mensajes Retrasados”. Revista Venezolana de Computación. Vol. 1, No. 2, December 2014, pp. 63-71.
E. Gamess and I. Mahgoub. “A Novel VANET-Based Approach to Determine the Position of the Last Vehicle Waiting at a Traffic Light”. In Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Wireless Networks (ICWN’11), Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 2011, 327–333.
C.-Y. Li, A.-K. Jeng, and R.-H. Jan. “A MAC Protocol for Multi-Channel Multi-Interface Wireless Mesh Network using Hybrid Channel Assignment Scheme”. Journal of Information Sciencie and Engineering. Vol. 23, No. 4, July 2007, pp. 1041-1055.
C. Chereddi, K. Pradeep, S. Jungmin, and N. Vaidya. “Multi-Channel Mesh Networks: Challenges and Protocols”. IEEE Wireless Communications. Vol. 13, No. 2. April 2006, pp. 30-36.
A. Varga. “The OMNeT++ Discrete Event Simulation System”. In Proceedings of the 15th European Simulation Multiconference (ESM’2001). Prague, Czech Republic, June 2001.
IEEE Trial-Use Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Multi-Channel Operation. IEEE 1609.4. November 2006.