Digital transformation is the application of innovative digital technology to fundamentally change the model of how business operates, and the way technology is delivered to support the overall business. The evolution of digital transformation has taken place in different stages, from automation to radical shifts of business models via disruptive technologies of modern times. The emergence of Big Data and cloud computing has fundamentally changed the paradigm of computing in data transformation and delivery. Mountains of data of huge volume, velocity, and variety are converted into actionable intelligence that can be delivered in real-time on demand, anywhere and anytime around the globe. This paper examines the technology drivers for digital transformation that include Big Data, advanced analytics and artificial intelligence under an integrated cloud platform that provides ubiquitous on-demand services to modern enterprises driven by knowledge and relationship. Data from different sources are transformed into actionable intelligence via traditional and Big Data analytic platforms. It is distributed via an everything-as-a-service model to a community that consists of organizations, people, things and systems, anywhere and anytime around the globe. Analysis of business cases points to the importance of investing in digital transformation as illustrated by the success and failure of companies coping with the recent coronavirus pandemic. This paper provides an architecture that serves as a roadmap for the digital transformation of modern-day business enterprises.
Joseph On-Piu Chan,
Digital Transformation in the Era of Big Data and Cloud Computing, International Journal of Intelligent Information Systems.
Vol. 9, No. 3,
2020, pp. 16-23.
Columbus, L. (2018). “The State of Digital Business Transformation, 2018”. Forbes. Available: https://www.forbes.com/sites/louiscolumbus/2018/04/22/the-state-of-digital-business-transformation-2018/#43e8867c5883
Galbreath, J. (2002). “Success in the Relationship Age: building quality relationship assets for market value creation”. TQM Magazine, 14 (1), 8-24.
Chan, J. O. (2009). “Integrating Knowledge Management and Relationship Management in an Enterprise Environment”. Communications of the International Information Management Association, Volume 9, Issue 4.
Minelli, M., Chambers, M., & Dhiraj, A. (2013). “Big Data, Big Analytics: Emerging Business Intelligence and Analytic Trends for Today’s Businesses”. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Laney, D. (2001). “3D Data Management: Controlling Data Volume, Velocity, and Variety”. The Meta Group, 6 February 2001. Available: https://blogs.gartner.com/doug-laney/files/2012/01/ad949-3D-Data-Management-Controlling-Data-Volume-Velocity-and-Variety.pdf
Das, T. K. and Kumar, P. M. (2013). “Big Data Analytics: A Framework for Unstructured Data Analysis”. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 5 (1), Feb-Mar 2013.
Dayce, D. (2020). “The Number of tweets per day in 2020”. Digital Marketing Consultant. Available: https://www.dsayce.com/social-media/tweets-day/#:~:text=Every%20second%2C%20on%20average%2C%20around%206%2C000%20tweets%20are%20tweeted%20on,August%202014%20with%20661%20million.
Noyes, D. (2020). “The Top 20 Valuable Facebook Statistics – Updated June 2020”. Zephoria, Digital Marketing. Available: https://zephoria.com/top-15-valuable-facebook-statistics/
Polsonetti, C. (2014). “Know the Difference Between IoT and M2M”. Automation World, July 15, 2014. Available: https://www.automationworld.com/article/topics/cloud-computing/know-difference-between-iot-and-m2m
Evans, D. (2011). “The Internet of Things How the Next Evolution of the Internet Is Changing Everything”. Cisco. Available: https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/about/ac79/docs/innov/IoT_IBSG_0411FINAL.pdf
Percivall, G. (2013). “Big Processing of Geospatial Data”. Opengeospatial.org, August 2013. Available:  Percivall, G. (2013). “Big Processing of Geospatial Data”. Opengeospatial.org, August 2013. Available: http://www.opengeospatial.org/blog/1866
O’Dea, S. (2020) “Smartphone users worldwide 2016-2021”. Statista. Available: https://www.statista.com/statistics/330695/number-of-smartphone-users-worldwide/
Newman, D. (2018). “What Does A Mobile-First Digital Transformation Strategy Look Like?” CMO Network. Available: https://www.forbes.com/sites/danielnewman/2018/05/29/what-does-a-mobile-first-digital-transformation-strategy-look-like/#5c3c86a4f3c0
Clement, J. (2019). “U.S. mobile retail commerce sales share 2017-2021”. Statista, E-commerce. Available: https://www.statista.com/statistics/249863/us-mobile-retail-commerce-sales-as-percentage-of-e-commerce-sales/
Gazdecki, A. (2018). “How To Become A Mobile-First Agency”. Forbes Council Post. Available: https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2018/03/29/how-to-become-a-mobile-first-agency/#5449c7c6739c
Turban, E. & Aronson, J. E. (2001). “Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems”, 6th Ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Dickson, B. (2018). “All the important games artificial intelligence has Conquered”. TechTalks. Available: https://bdtechtalks.com/2018/07/02/ai-plays-chess-go-poker-video-games/
Bhaskar, S. (2018). “Digital Transformation & Artificial Intelligence: Is your Organization ready?” Digite. Available: https://www.digite.com/blog/digital-transformation-and-artificial-intelligence/
Egham, U.K. (2019). “Gartner Says Worldwide Robotic Process Automation Software Market Grew 63% in 2018”. Gartner. Available: https://www.gartner.com/en/newsroom/press-releases/2019-06-24-gartner-says-worldwide-robotic-process-automation-sof
Columbus, L. (2020). “Roundup Of Machine Learning Forecasts and Market Estimates, 2020”. Forbes. Available: https://www.forbes.com/sites/louiscolumbus/2020/01/19/roundup-of-machine-learning-forecasts-and-market-estimates-2020/?ss=big-data#4e2f67655c02
Sultan, N. (2013). “Knowledge management in the age of cloud computing and Web 2.0: Experiencing the power of disruptive innovations”. International Journal of Information Management, 33 (1), 160-165.
Delic, K. A. and Riley, J. A. (2009). “Enterprise Knowledge Clouds: Next Generation KM Systems”. 2009 International Conference on Information, Process, and Knowledge Management, 1-7 Feb. 2009. DOI: 10.1109/eKNOW.2009.28.
Chan, J. O. (2018). “Customer Knowledge Management In the Cloud Ecosystem”. Communications of the IIMA: Vol. 16: Iss. 2, Article 3. Available: https://scholarworks.lib.csusb.edu/ciima/vol16/iss2/3
Depeige, A. and Doyencourt, D. (2015). “Actionable Knowledge As A Service (AKAAS): Leveraging big data analytics in cloud computing environments”. Journal of Big Data (2015), 2: 12 DOI 10.1186/s40537-015-0023-2.
Newman, D. (2017). “Data As A Service: The Big Opportunity For Business”. Available: CMO Network. https://www.forbes.com/sites/danielnewman/2017/02/07/data-as-a-service-the-big-opportunity-for-business/#5da1d18824d9
Randall, L. (2016). “What is Data as a Service? The 3 Key Dimensions”. Available: https://www.dbta.com/BigDataQuarterly/Articles/What-is-Data-as-a-Service-The-3-Key-Dimensions-114568.aspx
Rustam, D. and Van der Weide, T. P. (2014). “Towards a methodological framework for designing a knowledge market”. In Advanced Informatics: Concept, Theory and Application, 2014. ICAICTA 2014. IEEE International Conference. Bandung, 20-21 August 2014, IEEE Vol. 1 pp. 232–237.
Collins, G., Krumkachev, P., Aspin, G., Metzger, M., Radeztsky, S., & Srinivasan, S. (2017). “Everything-as-a-service: Modernizing the core through a services lens”. Tech Trends 2017, Deloitte Insights, February 07, 2017.
Vonnegut, S. (2017). “Cloud or Clouds? How and Why to Choose a Single or Multi-Cloud Approach”. Stratoscale. Available: https://www.stratoscale.com/blog/it-leadership/cloud-clouds-choose-single-multi-cloud-approach/
Gartner (2020). “Integration Platform As A Service (IPaaS)”. Available: Gartner Glossary. Available: https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/information-platform-as-a-service-ipaas#:~: text=Integration%20Platform%20as%20a%20Service%20 (iPaaS)%20is%20a%20suite%20of, individual%20or%20across%20multiple%20organizations
Geene, M. (2019). “THE CONVERGENCE OF API MANAGEMENT AND IPAAS. ARE YOU READY?” API Industry Trends. Available: https://blog.cloud-elements.com/convergence-api-management-ipaas-ready
Chan, J. O. (2013). “An Architecture for Big Data Analytics”. Communications of the IIMA, 13 (2), 1-14, 2013.
D'Onofrio, T. (2019). “The secrets to Walmart’s success. The Digital Transformation People”. The Digital Transformation People. Available: https://www.thedigitaltransformationpeople.com/channels/customer-engagement/the-secrets-to-walmarts-success/
Shichor, S. (2017). “Walmart’s Retail Link-Point-Of-Sale Data”. 18Knowledge, Eighteen Knowledge Group (EKG), March 16, 2017. Available: https://18knowledge.com/blog/walmarts-retail-link-point-of-sale-data/#:~:text=Walmart's%20Retail%20Link%C2%AE%20is,%2DSale%20(POS)%20data.&text=The%20data%20predicts%20buying%20patterns,customer%20satisfaction%20and%20brand%20awareness.
Marr, B. (2016). “The Most Practical Big Data Use Cases of 2016”. Forbes. Available: https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2016/08/25/the-most-practical-big-data-use-cases-of-2016/#3781e58d3162
Vasgaard et al. (2018). “United States Patent Application Publication”. Patent Application Publication, Pub. No. US 2018/0240554 A1, August 23, 2018. Available: http://pdfaiw.uspto.gov/.aiw?PageNum=0&docid=20180240554&IDKey=F4F1B5839ACE&HomeUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fappft.uspto.gov%2Fnetacgi%2Fnph-Parser%3FSect1%3DPTO1%26Sect2%3DHITOFF%26d%3DPG01%26p%3D1%26u%3D%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html%26r%3D1%26f%3DG%25
Cantor, B. (2011). “Wal-Mart Seeks to Redefine Social CRM with New Local Strategy”. Customer Contact Week. 10/12/2011. Available: https://www.customercontactweekdigital.com/customer-experience/articles/wal-mart-seeks-to-redefine-social-crm-with-new-loc
Burke, P. (2013). “Walmart Gets in the Cloud Computing Game”. IT BRIEFCASE. June 4, 2013. Available: http://www.itbriefcase.net/walmart-gets-in-the-cloud-computing-game
Dickey, M. R. (2018). “Walmart is building an AI lab inside one of its stores”. TechCrunch. 9/11/2018. Available: https://techcrunch.com/2018/11/08/walmart-is-building-an-ai-lab-inside-one-of-its-store/
SEO-Kisumu (2011). “KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT-A CASE STUDY OF WALLMART”. HubPages, May 25, 2011. Available: https://hubpages.com/business/KNOWLEDGE-MANAGEMENT-A-CASE-STUDY-OF-WALLMART
Gudat, S. (2020). “How Walmart Customer Loyalty Is Rising To The Top”. Customer Communications Group, Inc. Available: https://www.customer.com/blog/retail-marketing/walmart-customer-loyalty-rises-to-top/
Nassauer, N. (2020). “Walmart Sales Surge as Coronavirus Drives Americans to Stockpile”. The Wall Street Journal, May 19, 2020. Available: https://www.wsj.com/articles/walmart-sales-surge-as-coronavirus-drives-americans-to-stockpile-11589888464
Redman, R. (2020). “Target gets Q1 boost from 141% jump in digital sales”. SUPERMARKET NEWS. https://www.supermarketnews.com/retail-financial/target-gets-q1-boost-141-jump-digital-sales#:~:text=Target%20noted%20that%20digital%20comp,more%20than%2016%25%20in%20April.&text=Stores%20fulfilled%20nearly%2080%25%20of%20digital%20sales%20in%20the%20quarter.
Schwartz, S. A. (2019). “Target's digital strategy evolves from 'folding table setup' to enviable organization”. CIO DIVE, March 8, 2019. Available: https://www.ciodive.com/news/targets-digital-strategy-evolves-from-folding-table-setup-to-enviable-or/550068/
Nassauer, S. (2020). “Target Gains Strength During Coronavirus”. The Wall Street Journal, May 20, 2020. Available: https://www.wsj.com/articles/target-gains-strength-during-coronavirus-11589970900
Billups, A. (2011). “Sears, Kmart failed to anticipate their customers’ needs”. The Washington Times December 29, 2011. Available: https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/dec/29/sears-kmart-failed-to-anticipate-their-customers-n/
Ritter, D. (2017). “Why Sears Is Failing”. Observer, 02/22/17. Available: https://observer.com/2017/02/why-sears-is-failing/
Isidore, C. (2020). “Sears' survival is in doubt”. CNN Business, May 20, 2020. Available: https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/20/business/sears-bankruptcy/index.html
Isidore, C. & Meyersohn, N. (2020). “JCPenney files for bankruptcy”. CNN Business, May 16, 2020. Available: https://www.ksat.com/news/local/2020/05/16/jcpenny-files-for-bankruptcy/
CNN (2018). “How it all went wrong at JCPenney”. CNN, Aug 29. 2018. Available: https://www.abc15.com/news/national/how-it-all-went-wrong-at-jcpenney
Pacheco, I. (2020). “IKEA Can’t Reopen Stores Fast Enough After Flubbing Online Orders”. Wall Street Journal, Business, June 6, 2020. Available: https://www.wsj.com/articles/ikea-cant-reopen-stores-fast-enough-after-flubbing-online-orders-11591448401