The refraction and apparent reflection of HF radio waves by the ionosphere enables long range HF radio communications. The ionosphere is a distinctly irregular medium that is mostly driven by solar activity. Ionospheric models are useful in the prediction of ionospheric behaviour and in the provision of data required for the analysis and forecasting of ionospheric propagation. This paper provides a compact review of HF radio propagation prediction techniques and approaches for HF communications. The paper also highlights the numerous approaches have been used to date in an attempt to estimate F2 usable frequencies. The review presented in this paper is inspired by the most recent advances in the field of ionospheric prediction and modelling.
Radio Propagation Prediction for HF Communications, Communications.
Vol. 6, No. 1,
2018, pp. 5-12.
B. Zolesi and L. R. Cander, Ionospheric Prediction and forecasting, Springer, New York, 2014.
K Rawer, The historical development of forecasting methods for ionospheric propagation of HF waves, Radio Sci, vol 10, no. 7, pp. 669-679, 1975.
L. Barclay (ed), Propagation of radio waves, The institution of Engineering and Technology, UK, 2003.
J. M. Goodman, Operational communication systems and relationships to the ionosphere and space weather, Adva. Space. Res., vol. 36, pp. 2241-2252, 2005.
L. F. McNamara, C. R. Baker and W. S. Borer, Real-time specification of HF propagation support based on a global assimilative model of the ionosphere, Radio Sci., vol. 44, doi:10.1029/2008RS004004, 2009.
P. G. Brasseur and S. Solomon, Aeronomy of the middle atmosphere: chemistry and physics of the stratosphere and mesosphere: Third revised and enlarged edition, Springer, Netherlands, 2005.
J. S. Seybold, Introduction to RF propagation, Wiley, New Jersey, 2005.
J. A. Richards, Radio wave propagation, Springer, Germany, 2008.
N. M Maslin, HF Communications, Taylor & Francis, UK, 2005.
N. Blaustein and C. G. Christodoulou, Radio Propagation and Adaptive Antennas for Wireless Communication Links, Wiley, New Jersey, 2007.
J. J. Carr, Antenna Toolkit: 2nd Edition, Newnes, Oxford, 2001.
H. Plendl, Concerning the influence of the eleven-year solar activity period upon the propagation of waves in wireless telegraphy, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng., vol. 20, Issue 3, pp. 520-539, 1932.
K. Rawer, Propagation of decameter waves (HF-Band), Meteorological and Astronomical Influences on Radio Wave Propagation, ed. By B. Landmark, pp. 221-250, New York, 1963.
N. Smith, Extension of normal-incidence ionosphere measurements to oblique incidence radio transmission, Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, vol. 19, pp. 89-94, 1937.
N. Smith, The Relation of Radio Sky-Wave Transmission to Ionosphere Measurements, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng., pp. 332-347, 1939.
K. Davies, Ionospheric Radio Propagation, Dover Publications, New York, 1966.
D. C. Jenn, EC3630 Radiowave Propagation, Naval Postgraduate School: Dep. of Elec & Comp. Eng., California, 2010.
C. Mudzingwa, A. Nechibvute and A. Chawanda, Maximum Useable Frequency Prediction Using Vertical Incidence Data, Int. Journ. of Eng. Res. and Tech., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 2050-2056, 2013.
A. G. Kim and G. V. Katovich, Preliminary results for electron density profile reconstruction from weakly oblique sounding data, Proc. of SPIE, vol. 6936, 2008.
A. Ghasemi, A. Abedi, and F. Ghasemi, Propagation engineering in wireless communications, Springer, New York, 2012.
M. Muhlhauser and I. Gurevych, Handbook of research on ubiquitous computing technology for real time enterprises, Information Science Reference, New York, 2008.
L. Barclay (ed.), Propagation of radio waves, The Institution of Engineering and Technology, UK, 2003.
L. F. McNamara, The Ionosphere: Communications, Surveillance and Direction Finding, Krieger Pub. Co., 1991.
R. M. Jones and J. J. Stephenson, A three dimensional ray tracing computer program for radio waves in the ionosphere, US. Dept. of Commerce Office of Telecommunications OT report 75-76, 1975.
J. P. Villain, R. A. Greenwald and J. F. Vickrey, HF ray tracing at high latitudes using measured meridional electron density distributions, Radio Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 359-374, 1984.
G. Miro´ Amarante and S. M. Radicella, Use of ray tracing in models to investigate ionospheric channel performance, Adva. Space Res., vol. 39, pp. 926–931, 2007.
X. Huang and B. W. Reinisch, Real-time HF ray tracing through a tilted ionosphere, Radio. Sci., vol. 41, RS5S47, 2006.
A. Graham, Communications, Radar and Electronic Warfare, Wiley, UK, 2011.
R. D. Hunsucker and J. K. Hargreaves, The high latitude ionosphere and its effects on radio propagation, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002.
H. Sizun, Radio wave propagation for Telecommunication Applications, Springer, Berlin, 2005.
R. Hanbaba, Perfomance prediction methods of HF radio systems, Annali Di Geofisica, vol. 41, no. 5-6, pp. 715-742, 1998.
COST 238, PRIME (Prediction and Retrospective Ionospheric Modelling over Europe). Final report, Commission of the European Communities, 1999.
COST 251, Improved Quality of Service in Ionospheric Telecommunication Systems Planning and Operation, Final report, Commission of the European Communities, 1999.
J. M. Goodman, Space Weather and Telecommunications, Springer, New York, 2005.
J. Feng, A new method for ionospheric short-term forecast using similar-day modelling, Antennas, Propagation & EM Theory (ISAPE), 10th International Symposium, pp. 472–474, 2012.
J. D. Huba, R. W. Schunk and G. V. Khazano (ed.), Modeling the Ionosphere-Thermosphere, AGU, Washington, 2013.
P. P. Ban, S. J. Sun, C. Chen and Z. W. Zhao, Forecasting of low-latitude storm-time ionospheric foF2 using support vector machine, Radio Sci., vol. 46, 2011.
P. A. Bradley, Further study of foF2 and M (3000) F2 in different solar cycles, Ann Geofis, 37:201–208, 1994.
ITU-R SG3, Handbook on ionospheric properties and propagation, Geneva, 1996.
ITU-R Rec. P. 1239, ITU-R Reference ionospheric characteristics, International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, 1997.
S. Chapman, The absorption and dissociative or ionizing effect of monochromatic radiation in an atmosphere on a rotating Earth, Proc. Phys. Soc., vol. 43, pp. 26–45, 1931.
S. Y. Ji, J. Dong and J. Wang, Short-term forecasting method of usable frequency based on vertical sounding data in single station, WIT Transa. on Info. and Comm. Tech., vol. 60, 2015.
ITU-R Rec. P. 373–7, Definitions of maximum and minimum transmission frequencies. International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, 1995.
J. Whithers, Radio spectrum management: management of the spectrum and regulation of radio services, IEE Telecommunications, series 45, London, 1999.
I. Poole, Basic radio: Principles and Technology, Newnes, London, 1998.
J. Wang, Basic MUF observation and comparison of HF radio frequency prediction based on different ionosphere models, IEEE ISAPE, pp. 403-406, 2010.
F. F. Mazda (ed.), Electronics engineers’ reference book, 6th Ed., Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, London, 1989.
D. I. Okoh, L. A. McKinnell and P. J. Cilliers, Developing an ionospheric map for South Africa, Ann. Geophys., vol. 28, pp. 1431–1439, 2010.
K. G. Budden, The propagation of radio waves, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985.
J. Whithers, Radio spectrum management: management of the spectrum and regulation of radio services, IEE Telecommunications, Series 45, London, 1999.
G. Lane, F. J. Rhoads and L. Deblasio, Voice of America Coverage Analysis Program (VOACAP): A Program Guide, VOA B/ESA Report 01-93, 1993.
ITS, Ionospheric Communications Enhanced Profile Analysis & Circuit (ICEPAC) prediction program user’s manual, Institute for Telecommunication Sciences, Boulder, Colorado, 2007.
L. R. Teters, J. L. Lloyd, G. W. Haydon and D. L. Lucas, Estimating the perfomance of telecommunication systems using the ionospheric channel: (Volume II) Ionospheric Communications Analysis and Prediction Program user’s manual, Institute for Telecommunication Sciences NTIA Report 83-127, July 1983.
M. Lockwood, A simple M-factor algorithm for improved estimation of the basic maximum usable frequency of radio waves reflected from the ionospheric F region, Proceedings of the IEE 130F, pp. 296–302, 1983.
A. K. Shukla, P. S. Cannon, S. Roberts and D. Lynch, A tactical HF decision aid for inexperienced operators and automated HF systems, 7th International Conference on HF Radio Systems and Techniques, pp. 383, IEE, Nottingham, UK, 1997.
G. Bishop, T. Bullett, K. Groves, S. Quigley, P. Doherty, E. Sexton, K. Scro, R. Wilkes and P. Citrone, Operational Space Environment Network Display (OpSEND), 10th International Ionospheric Effects Symposium, Alexandria, Virginia, USA, 2002.
C. Levis, J. T. Johnson and F. L. Teixeira, Radiowave propagation: Physics and applications, Wiley, 2010.
M. F. Iskander and Z. Yun, Propagation prediction models for wireless communication systems, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 50, no. 3, 2002.
R. Hanbaba, Performance prediction methods of HF systems, Annal. Di Geofisica, vol. 41, no. 5-6, 1998.
B. Zolesi, A. Belehaki, I. Tsagouri and L. R. Cander, Realtime updating of the simplified ionospheric regional model for operational applications, Radio Sci., vol. 39, no. 2, 2004.
M. Pietrella and L. Perrone, Instantaneous space weighted ionospheric regional model for instantaneous mapping of the critical frequency of the F2 layer in the European region, Radio Sci., vol. 40, no. 1, 2005.
J. N, Korenkov, Ionospheric modelling, Springer Basel AG, Germany, 1988.
A. F. Yakovets, V. V. Vodyannikov, G. I. Gordienko and Y. G. Litvinov, Some features of nighttime enhancements in the electron concentration in the F2 layer maximum of the midlatitude ionosphere, Geomagn. Aeron., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 807-816.
G. Chen, H. Qi, B. Ning, Z. Zhao, M. Yao, Z. Deng, T. Li, S. Huang, W. Feng, J. Wu and C. Wu, Nighttime ionospheric enhancements induced by the occurrence of an evening solar eclipse, Journ. of. Geohys. Research: Space Physics, vol. 118, pp. 6588–6596, 2013.
W. Fengsi, C. Hongchang, F. Xueshang and S. Jiankui, A prediction method of geomagnetic disturbances based on IPS observations-dynamics-fuzzy mathematics, Adva. in Space Res., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1069-1073.