Please enter verification code
Long-reach Optical Access (LROA): A Cost-effective Promising Approach
Volume 7, Issue 2, December 2019, Pages: 40-44
Received: Nov. 9, 2019; Accepted: Nov. 23, 2019; Published: Dec. 4, 2019
Views 686      Downloads 81
Ibrahim Mohamed, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Al-Bayda, Libya
Article Tools
Follow on us
To compensate the decrease in its revenue, most telecom operators have adopted similar strategy which is to provide faster Internet with low cost to its customers. Studies suggested that providing faster Internet with low cost can be achieved by reducing the cost of building next-generation access network. Among the various technologies introduced for next-generation access, long-reach optical access LROA is considered the largest candidate. This is due to the anticipated cost effectiveness of this technology. In LROA, more users can be supported over a common optical component (e.g., a transmitter, a fiber, or probably both), i.e., small number of entities is employed in the access network for service provisioning, which is considered as an improvement in the cost-sharing concept. Our objective in this paper is to verify the cost-effectiveness of this technology. To this end, a statistical-based cost comparison was conducted. The comparison was between the currently deployed passive optical networks (PONs), i.e., the Broad band PON (B-PON [G. 983]), the Ethernet PON (E-PON [IEEE802.3ah]), and the gigabit PON (G-PON [ITU-T G. 984]) and one of the LROA architectures proposed in the literature. The comparison process confirmed that the LROA requires less cost and cost per subscriber as compared with the currently deployed PONs.
Next Generation Optical Access, Passive Optical Networks PONs, WDM-PONs, Hybrid TDM/WDM-PONs, Long-reach Optical Access
To cite this article
Ibrahim Mohamed, Long-reach Optical Access (LROA): A Cost-effective Promising Approach, Communications. Vol. 7, No. 2, 2019, pp. 40-44. doi: 10.11648/
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Josep Prat. Next-Generation FTTH Passive Optical Networks. Springer Science, Business Media B. V. 2008.
Ibrahim Mohamed and Mohammad Syuhaimi, LONG-REACH OPTICAL ACCESS NETWORKS (LR-OANS): A PROMISING CANDIDATE FOR FUTURE OPTICAL ACCESS, American Journal of Applied Sciences 11 (9): 1604-1615, 2014.
Ibrahim Mohamed and Mohammad Syuhaimi, Options and challenges in next-generation optical access networks (NG-OANs), Optik 126 (2015) 131–138.
Jianhe Gao, “Demonstration of the first 29dB power budget of 25-Gb/s 4-PAM system without optical amplifier for next generation access network’’, Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), 2016.
Richard M. Dorward, Michael J. Anderson, and Roger P. Giddings, “Technical and market feasibility of high-speed software-reconfigurable OOFDM/DFMA-based Optical transceivers for Next Generation Access Network PONs’’, 18th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2016.
Zhenhua Feng, Ming Tang, Xun Guan, Calvin Chun-Kit Chan, Qiong Wu, Xi Chen, Ruoxu Wang, Rui Lin, Songnian Fu, Lei Deng, and Deming Liu “Spectrally overlaid DDO-OFDM transmission enabled by optical power division multiplexing’’, 15th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN), 2016.
Zhenhua Feng; Liang Xu; Qiong Wu; Ming Tang; Songnian Fu; Weijun Tong; Deming Liu “Large-capacity optical access network utilizing multicore fiber and self-homodyne coherent detection’’, Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), 2017.
Xinhua Zhu, Mengfan Cheng, Lei Deng, XingXing Jiang, Changjian Ke, Minming Zhang, Songnian Fu, Ming Tang, Ping Shum, and Deming Liu “An Optically Coupled Electro-Optic Chaos System With Suppressed Time-Delay Signature’’, IEEE Photonics Journal, Volume: 9, Issue 3, 2017。
IEEE Std 802.3av-2009, (Amendment to IEEE Std 802.3-2008), “Physicallayer specifications and management parameters for 10 Gb/s passive opticalnetworks,” Approved 11 September 2009, IEEE-SA Standards Board.
ITU-T Recommendation G. 987 series: Digital sections and digital line sys-tem – Optical line systems for local and access networks, “10-Gigabit-capablepassive optical network (XG-PON) systems: Definitions, abbreviations andacronyms”, 2010.
H. Takesue, T. Sugie, Wavelength channel data rewrite using saturatedSOAmodulator for WDM networks with centralized light sources, IEEE J. Light-wave Technol. 21 (Nov (11)) (2003) 2546–2556.
N. Genay, P. Chanclou, T. Duong, N. Brochier, and E. Pincemin, “BidirectionalWDM/TDM- PON access networks integrating downstream 10 Gbit/s DPSK andupstream 2.5 Gbit/s OOK on the same wavelength”, Proceeding of The EuropeanConference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2006), Cannes, France, 24-28Sept 2006, pp. 1–2.
H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, T. Suzuki, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, M. Tsubokawa, Wavelength-tunable DWDM-SFP transceiver with a signal monitoring inter-face and its application to coexistence-type colorless WDM-PON, in: Presentedat the 33rd Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2007), Sept. 16–20, Berlin, Germany, 2007.
J. Kani, K. Iwatsuki, A wavelength-tunable optical transmitter using semicon-ductor optical amplifiers and an optical tunable filter for metro/access DWDMapplications, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23 (Mar (3)) (2005) 1164–1169.
K. Grobe, J. P. Elbers, PON in adolescence: from TDMA to WDM-PON, IEEE Com-mun. Mag. 46 (2008) 26–34.
J. i. Kani, Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PONand WDM/TDM-PON systems, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16 (2010) 1290–1297.
Jie Hyun Lee, Seung-Hyun Cho, Han-Hyub Lee, Eui-Suk Jung, Jea-Hoon Yu, Byoung-Whi Kim, Sang-Hyeun Lee, Jai-Sang Koh, Back-Heung Sung, Suk-JinKang, Jin-Hee Kim, Ki-Tae Jeong, Sang Soo Lee, First commercial deploymentof a colorless gigabit WDM/TDM hybrid PON system using remote protocolterminator, J. Lightwave Technol. 28 (2010) 344–351.
Yuanqiu Luo, Xiaoping Zhou, Frank Effenberger, Xuejin Yan, Guikai Peng, Yinbo Qian, Yiran Ma, Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive opticalnetwork (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2), J. Light-wave Technol. 31 (February (4)) (2013) 587–593.
Abhishek Dixit, Bart Lannoo, Goutam Das, Didier Colle, Mario Pickavet, PietDemeester, Flexible TDMA/WDMA passive optical network: Energy efficientnext-generation optical access solution, Opt. Switching Networking 10 (4) (2013) 491–506.
Mohammad Syuhaimi, Ibrahim Mohamed, High efficient fiber plant utiliza-tion by multiple PON infrastructure based on frequency re-use approach forscalable FTTH networks, in: Presented at the Third Global Conference for Aca-demic Research on Scientific and Emerging Technologies GCARSET, March. 9–11, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2013.
A. Kaneko, T. Goh, H. Yamada, T. Tanaka, L. Ogawa, Design and applicationsof silica-based planar lightwave circuits, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5 (Sept/Oct (5)) (1999) 1227–1236.
I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, X. Z. Qiu, The SuperPON demon-strator: an exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks, IEEE Commun. Mag. 38 (2000) 74–82.
D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, A 10 Gb/s 1024-way split 100-km long reachoptical access network, J. Lightwave Technol. 25 (Mar (3)) (2007) 685–693.
P. P. Iannone, H. H. Lee, K. C. Reichmann, X. Zhou, M. Du, B. Pálsdóttir, K. Feder, P. Westbrook, K. Brar, J. Mann, L. Spiekman, Four extended-reach TDM PONs shar-ing a bidirectional hybrid CWDM mplifier, J. Lightwave Technol. 26 (January (1)) (2008) 138–143.
P. P. Iannone, K. C. Reichmann, X. Zhou, S. Gray, A discrete SOA-Raman hybridamplifier with 80-nm bandwidth, in: Proc. ECON, 2006, pp. 1–2.
H. Lee, P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, J. Lee, B. Palsdottir, A C/L-band gain-clampedSOA-Raman hybrid amplifier for CWDM access networks, IEEE Photonics Tech-nol. Lett. 20 (3) (2008) 196–198.
G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access, J. Lightwave Technol. 24 (2006) 2827–2834.
D. P. Shea, J. E. Mitchell, Experimental upstream demonstration of a long reach wavelength-converting PON with DWDM Backhaul, in: Proc. Optical Fiber Com-munication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OFC/NFOEC, 2007, pp. 1–3.
Minwan Jung, You Min Chang, Ju Han Lee, A band-separated, bidirec-tional amplifier based on erbium-doped bismuth fiber for long-reach hybrid DWDM–TDM passive optical networks, J. Opt. Commun. Networking 4 (3) (2012).
Mohammad Syuhaimi, Ibrahim Mohamed, Highly utilized fiber plant with extended reach and high splitting ratio based on AWG and EDFA characteristics, ETRI J. 35 (5) (2013) 786–796.
Huan Song, Byoung-Whi Kim, Biswanath Mukherjee, Multi-thread polling: adynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27 (February (2)) (2009) 134–142.
L. G. Kazovsky, S.-W. Wong, V. Gudla, P. T. Afshar, S.-H. Yen, S. Yamashita, Y. Yan, Challenges in next-generation optical access networks: addressing reach extension and security weaknesses, IET Optoelectron. 5 (4) (2011) 133–143.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186