Analysis of Indirect Human Influences and its Bad Impacts on Ecosystems of Natural Forest Resources (Sundarbans) in Bangladesh
American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 130-140
Received: Aug. 6, 2014; Accepted: Aug. 18, 2014; Published: Aug. 30, 2014
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Awal, Mohd Abdul, Environmental Scientist, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Founder & Chief Advisor, Health & Pollution Research Farm, Long Island City, New York, USA
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Abstract
Sundarbans plays a vital role for human survivability from cradle to grave including tangible and intangible benefits. The total forest area of Bangladesh is about 2.47 million ha, which accounts for about 18% of the total land area of the country, and which constitutes 0.15% of the world’s total tropical forests (Haque, 2000), although an estimate from 1993 only put the tree cover at 5-7% of the country’s area (FAO,1993). Sundarbans comprises 45% of the total productive forests in Bangladesh, and contributes about 50% of forest related revenue (Awal, 2007). The Sundarbans is the largest single mangrove forest in the world, occupying about 6,029 km2 in Bangladesh and the rest in India (Iftekhar & Islam, 2004). At the advent of British rule in 1765, the Sundarbans forests were double their present size (Seidensticker, and Hai, 1983; Khan, 1997). But it is facing tremendous problems (Awal, 207, 2009, 2014). However, a serious killer disease (top dying) of H. fomes in Sundarbans is affecting millions of the trees (Awal, 2007). The loss of H. fomes will have a major impact on the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem, as well as lead to economic losses (Awal, 207, 2009, 2014). But, it is now under serious threatened through human direct and indirect destruction (Awal, 207, 2009, 2014), and by ecological pollution (Awal, 2007). The cause of this dieback is still unknown (Awal, 2007). The present work has investigated one of the possible factors that might be causing this top-dying namely the concentrations of various chemical elements present in the soil or sediments, particularly, Exchangeable K, heavy metals, though other chemical parameters such as the pH, moisture content of the soil or sediment and nutrient status were also assessed due to indirect human destruction of Sundarbans natural resources (Awal, 2007). A questionnaire survey was conducted among different groups of people inside and outside of Sundarbans to explore local perceptions as to the possible causes of top dying (Awal, 207, 2009, 2014). This confirmed the increase in top-dying prevalence (Awal, 2007).
Keywords
Human Destruction, Indirect Extractions, Activities, Chemical Contamination, Causal Factors, Pollution, Heavy Metal Concentrations, Chemical Contamination, Sundarbans, Top-Dying
To cite this article
Awal, Mohd Abdul, Analysis of Indirect Human Influences and its Bad Impacts on Ecosystems of Natural Forest Resources (Sundarbans) in Bangladesh, American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2014, pp. 130-140. doi: 10.11648/j.ajtas.20140305.13
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