An Application of Geostatistics to Analysis of Water Quality Parameters in Rivers and Streams in Niger State, Nigeria
Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques does not incorporate the spatial locations of data into their defining computations. Information on spatial continuity of surface water concentrations can help in identifying the magnitude of contamination by runoff and anthropogenic pollutions. In the present study, spatial behavior of five (5) surface water quality parameters of some rivers/streams in Niger State of Nigeria was studied using R geostatistical package gstat, in conjunction with packages sp, rgdal, spatstat and maptools. The variograms and ordinary krigged spatial maps were generated for rainy and dry seasons. The characteristics of the best variable models; range; sill and nugget effects of each parameter were obtained. The variogram analysis indicated a high spatial coherence for E.co, Mg and TDS, whereas TCo and TH indicated a low spatial coherence. The nugget to sill ratios of experimental and linear fitted variogram models in all cases were less than 0.25 indicating that the rivers/streams water level has strong spatial coherence in both seasons. This result shows that linear model is the best for both seasons. Krigged spatial variability maps revealed that an average range of 48km variograms for dry season changes more rapidly than it does in rainy season with an average range of 4.3 km and R2 values of 0.80 to 0.92.
An Application of Geostatistics to Analysis of Water Quality Parameters in Rivers and Streams in Niger State, Nigeria, American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics.
Vol. 4, No. 5,
2015, pp. 373-388.
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