Empirical Analysis of Work Life Balance polIcies and Its Impact on Employee’s Job Satisfaction and Performance: Descriptive Statistical Approach
American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics
Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 33-43
Received: Dec. 4, 2014;
Accepted: Dec. 6, 2014;
Published: Mar. 11, 2015
Views 3619 Downloads 527
Vishwa Nath Maurya, Department of Pure & Applied Mathematics and Statistics, School of Science & Technology, The University of Fiji, Lautoka, Fiji
Chandra K. Jaggi, Department of Operations Research, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
Bijay Singh, Department of Soils Sciences, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India
Charanjeet Singh Arneja, Department of Agricultural Extension, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India
Avadhesh Kumar Maurya, Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Lucknow Inst. of Technology, U.P. Technical University, Lucknow, India
Diwinder Kaur Arora, Group Centre, Central Reserve Police Force, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India, Guwahati, Assam, India
The present paper envisages analyzing the relationship between work life balance policies and employee job satisfaction. Specifically, it has been focused here that the work life balance policies lead to attaining equilibrium between professional work and other activities. Under the present study is also examined that the work life balance policies reduce friction between official and domestic life. Related theories of employee’s job satisfaction proposed by previous researchers are reviewed and summarized herein in order to use and correlate these to proposed empirical analysis. The quality of work life policies is increasingly becoming part of the business strategy and the focus is on the potential of these policies to influence employee’s quality of working life and more importantly to help them maintain work-life balance with equal attention on performance, commitment at work and job satisfaction. This study proves to be a milestone for the researchers, policy makers, management professionals, statisticians and students to properly understand the concepts of employee’s job satisfaction, work life balance and their relationship. The present empirical study involves descriptive statistical approach. The target population was two hundred and forty respondents. Statistical primary data was collected using questionnaires, and analyzed using statistical package for management and social sciences. The findings of this study emphasized that each of the work life balance policies on its own is a predictor of job satisfaction. The goodness of fit, R = 0.618 showed a good strength of the relationships between independent variables and the dependent variable. The result explored herein makes the recommendation that managers in banks should improve the work life balance policies offered to employees in order to increase their job satisfaction, to improve staff commitment and productivity.
Vishwa Nath Maurya,
Chandra K. Jaggi,
Charanjeet Singh Arneja,
Avadhesh Kumar Maurya,
Diwinder Kaur Arora,
Empirical Analysis of Work Life Balance polIcies and Its Impact on Employee’s Job Satisfaction and Performance: Descriptive Statistical Approach, American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. Special Issue: Scope of Statistical Modeling and Optimization Techniques in Management Decision Making Process.
Vol. 4, No. 2-1,
2015, pp. 33-43.
Alfredsson Karin, Equal Opportunities: Sweden Paves the Way, Stockholm: Swedish Institute, (2005)
Alimo-Metcalfe B., Developments in gender and leadership: introducing a new inclusive model, Gender in Management: An International Journal, 2010, pp. 630-639
Allen T.D., Herst D.E., Bruck C.S. and Sutton M., Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: A review and agenda for future research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 5(2), 2000, pp. 278-308
Allio R.J., Leadership- the five big ideas. Strategy and Leadership , 2009, pp. 4-12
Altıntas F.C., Gender-based analysis of leadership differences in Turkey. EuroMed Journal of Business , 2010, pp. 20-36
Armstrong, M., A handbook of human resource management practice, London, Kogan, 2002.
Arneja C.S., Maurya V.N. and Kaur Gaganpreet, Entrepreneurship development of Punjab farmers based on statistical survey, Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Scientia Research Library, Georgia, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2014, pp. 1-9, ISSN: 2348-0424, USA CODEN JETRB4
Arnold Anderson E.C., How Can a Leader's Attitude Affect Employee Satisfaction? Retrieved June Wednessday, 2011, from ehow: http://www.ehow.com/info_8392284_can-attitude-affect-employee-satisfaction.html
Auko Y.A., Work-Family Conflict and Coping Strategies Adopted by Women in Academia. Gender and Behaviour, Vol. 7 (1), 2009, pp. 2095-2122
Barnett R. and Rivers C. Same Difference: How gender myths are hurting our relationships, our children, and our jobs, Basic Books, New York, USA, 2004
Bhuian S.N., Menguc B. and Borsboom R., Stressors and job outcomes in sales: A triphasic model versus a linear-quadratic-interactive model. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 58, 2005, pp.141-150.
BM B., Hand book of Leadership, London Free Press, London, UK, 2008.
Boyar S.L., Maertz Jr. C.P. and Pearson A.W., The effects of work-family conflict and family-work conflict on nonattendance behaviors:Journal of Business Research, Vol. 58(7), 2005, pp. 919-925.
Brinia V., Male educational leadership in Greek primary schools: A theoretical framework based on experiences of male school leaders, International Journal of Educational Management , 2011, pp. 164-184
Butler A.B. and Skattebo A., What is acceptable for women may not be for men: The effect of family conflicts with work on job performance, .Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 77, 2004, pp. 553-564.
Carmeli A., The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes. An examination among senior managers:Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 18(8), 2003, pp. 788-813.
Daniel M., Leadership and organisational performance: from research to prescription? International Journal of Educational Management , 2011, pp. 45-60
Danish R.Q. and Usman A., .Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study from Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 5 (2), 2010, pp. 159-167.
DeConinck J.B., The effects of ethical climate on organizational identification, supervisory trust, and turnover among salespeople. Journal of Business Research , 2011, pp. 617-624.
Demerouti E., Bakker A.B. and Bulters A.J., The loss spiral of work pressure, work-home interference and exhaustion: Reciprocal relations in a three-wave study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 64(1), 2004, pp. 131-149.
Eikhof D.R., Warhurst C. and Haunschild A., Introduction what work? What life? What balance? Journal of Employee Relations, Vol. 29 (4), 2007, pp. 325 –333.
Elit L., Trim K., Mand-Bains I.H., Sussman J. and Grunfeld E., Job satisfaction, stress, and burnout among Canadian gynecologic oncologists: Gynecologic Oncology, Vol. 94, 2004, pp. 134-139.
Gary W. and Ivey T.J., Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military. Leadership & Organization Development, 2010, pp. 246-262
Goyal Nishi, Industrial Psycology, Krishna Publication Media Pvt. Ltd., India, 2010
Harrison D.A., Newman D.A. and Roth P.L., How important are job attitudes? Meta-analytic comparisons of integrative behavioural outcomes and time sequences: Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 49, 2006, pp. 305–325
Hui Wanga A.S., CEO leadership behaviors, organizational performance, and employees' attitudes. The Leadership Quarterly , 2011, pp. 92-105
Hung-Wen Lee and C.-H.L., An examination of factors affecting repatriates’ turnover intentions. International Journal of Manpower , 2007, pp. 122-134
Jackson, S.E. and Schuler R.S., Managing human resources through strategic partnerships, Thomson-South-western, 8th Ed., Mason, Ohio, 2003
James C. and Sarros J.C., The transformational-transactional leadership model in practice. Leadership and Organizational Development , 2001, pp. 383-393
Janelle E. and Wells J.W., Turnover intentions do leadership behaviors and satisfaction? Team Performance Management , 2010, pp. 23-40
Karatepe O. M. and Sokmen A., The effects of work role and family role variables on psychological and behavioral outcomes of frontline employees: Tourism Management, Vol. 27(2), 2006, pp. 255-268.
Karatepe O.M. and Tekinkus M., The effects of work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and intrinsic motivation on job outcomes of frontline employees: International Journal of Banking Marketing, Vol. 24(3), 2006, pp. 173-193.
Karsten Jonsen, Martha L. and Maznevski S.C., Gender differences in leadership– believing is seeing: implication for managing diversity. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 2010, pp. 549-572
Kaushik A.P., Pre service training-A factor of job, Scribd, Vol. 9, Oct. 2011
Kinunen U., Vermulst A., Gerris J. and Makikangas A., Work-family conflict and its relations to well-being: The role of personality as a moderating factor. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 35, 2003, pp. 1669-1683.
Kotter J.P., What leader really do, Harvard Business Reveiw Book, USA, 2001.
Lars Glaso S.I., Experienced affects in leader–subordinate relationships. Scandinavian. Journal of Management, 2006, pp. 49-73
Lee CM., Elke D. and Dobson R.D., Work-Life Balance for Early Career Canadian Psychologists in Professional Programs Canadian Psychology: Canadian Psychological Association, Vol. 50 (2), 2009, pp. 73-82
Lewis S., Rapoport R. and Gambles R., The Constraints of a Work Life Balance Approach: An International Perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource, Vol. 18(3), 2007, pp. 360-373
Lim B., Transformational leadership in the UK management culture. Leadership & Organization Development, 1997, pp. 283-289
Malik M.I., Role Overload, job satisfaction and their effect on layoff survivor’s Job Retention and Productivity, Interdisciplinary Journal of contemporary Research in Business, Vol. 2(11), 2011, pp. 427-440.
Marshall Schminke M.L., The effect of leader moral development on ethical climate and employee attitudes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 2005, pp. 135-151
Matin E.K., Nakhchian A. and Kashani B.H., Effect of Employees’ Entrepreneurial orientations on knowledge management in small and medium enterprises in Iran. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research , Vol. 3 (3), 2013, pp. 608-617
Maurya V.N. and Kaushik A.P., On the job training: A step towards job satisfaction- A case study of public sector organization in Indian scenario, International Journal of Mathematical Modeling and Applied Computing, Academic & Scientific Publishing, New York, USA, Vol. 1(2), 2013, pp. 11-17, ISSN: 2332-3744
Maurya V.N., Reddy N., Maurya A.K., Arora D.K. and Datt N., Optimization perspectives and effectiveness of gender in organizational leadership: Scenario of employees satisfaction and organizational goals, IEC University Journal of Engineering, Management and Sciences, India, Vol. 1 (1), 2014, pp. 15-29
Maurya V.N., Singh Bijay, Reddy N., Singh V.V., Maurya A.K., Arora D.K., Cost-effective perspective and scenario development on economic optimization for multiple-use dry-season water resource management, American Open Journal of Agricultural Research, Academic & Scientific Publishing, New York, USA, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2014, pp. 1-21, ISSN:2333-2131
Mokaya S.O. and Gitari J.W., Effects of Workplace Recreation on Employee Performance: The Case of Kenya Utalii College, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2(3), 2012, pp. 176-183.
Mugenda O.M. and Mugenda A.B., Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Acts Press, Nairobi. Vol. 5., 2003, pp. 21
Muijs D., Leadership and organisational performance: from research to prescription? International Journal of Educational Management, 2011, pp. 45-60
Robert D. and Costigan R.C., Revisiting the relationship of supervisor trust and CEO trust to turnover intentions: A three-country comparative study. Journal of World Business, 2011, pp.74-83
Timothy D. and Golden J.F., The impact of superior–subordinate relationships on the commitment, job satisfaction, and performance of virtual workers. The Leadership Quarterly, 2008, pp. 77-88
Torrington D., Hall L. and Taylor S., Human Resource Management, 7th Edition, Prentice Hall, London, UK, 2009
Varatharaj V. and Vasantha S., Work Life Balances a Source of Job Satisfaction - an Exploratory Study on the View of Women Employees in the Service Sector, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 2(3), 2012, PP. 450-458.
Weiss H.M., Deconstructing job satisfaction: separating evaluation, beliefs and affective experiences, Human Resources Management, Vol. 12, 2002, pp. 173-194
Weiss H.M., Organizational behaviour: affect in the workplace, annual review of Psychology, Vol. 53, 2001, pp. 279-307
Yukl G., Leadership in Organizations. London: Prentice Hall, 2001