Community Education of Personalized Breast Cancer Therapy Utilizing Students of HealthCare Professions
Clinical Medicine Research
Volume 6, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 157-163
Received: Aug. 21, 2017;
Accepted: Sep. 23, 2017;
Published: Nov. 6, 2017
Views 822 Downloads 26
Madison Noel Caudle, Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy, Clinton, USA
Amy Hynes, Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy, Clinton, USA
Christopher Farrell, Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy, Clinton, USA
Sarah Wagner, Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy, Clinton, USA
Follow on us
Introduction: Health literacy is a growing problem that can further lead to altered decision making, an amplified variety of health conditions, and decreased survival rates. This study demonstrates that by providing brief, educational seminars to medically underserved members of local communities, we could improve patients’ basic knowledge of breast cancer and explain specific treatment options that are available. Through this expanded knowledge, it is expected that patients will take a more active role in their own healthcare. Methods: The study began by developing a PowerPoint; based on a fifth grade reading level so all levels of education could be involved and understand how to respond. Topics such as breast cancer statistics, incidence rates, screening, risk factors, signs and symptoms, genetic testing and markers, and treatment were combined in order to give a diversity of subjects patients would benefit from in regards to breast cancer. Once created, pharmacy students reached out to local underserved communities to raise awareness about breast cancer and the many options patients have. Patients were given a pre-presentation survey in order to assess their basic knowledge of breast cancer. The survey consisted of a one (strongly disagree) to five (strongly agree) key to measure the patients understanding of various topics related to breast cancer. After the pre-presentation survey was completed, an educational breast cancer PowerPoint was presented. Questions were then asked and a post-survey (with the same questions as the pre-survey) was given in order to determine whether the presentation met its primary goal of elevating patient’s awareness of breast cancer. Results: Whether breast cancer naïve or a survivor, the majority of the patients present reported expanded knowledge of breast cancer and felt that they were more confident in taking initiative in their healthcare. With an alpha level set at 0.05, all of the questions showed statistical significance. Three key elements that showed the greatest improvement of gained knowledge involved the causes of breast cancer (pre-score 2.9- post-score 4.6 (standard deviation 1.69)), signs and symptoms of breast cancer (pre-score 3.5-post-score 4.5 (standard deviation 0.96)), and treatment options available to the public (pre-score 3.3-post-score 4.6 (standard deviation 1.31)). This suggests that at baseline, the patients were comparatively less aware and educated on breast cancer then after the presentation, when the post-survey was given. By presenting the material with a pre- and post-presentation survey, this enables the amount of knowledge gained by participants to be measured, and helps shape future presentations to guarantee maximum awareness to the patients attending. Conclusion: By this study, it can be concluded that pharmacists play a vital role in increasing health literacy and perhaps a subsequent improvement in survival rates by promoting breast cancer education and community outreach. By utilizing pharmacy students as presenters, this enables patients to have their medication questions answered, but also provides a platform for furthering pharmacy student’s education and skills as they develop into healthcare providers. The students also serve as a reminder that pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare provider, and a valuable resource for medical information and referrals.
Breast Cancer, Medically Underserved Communities, Education, Students, Laurens, Greenwood, Counties, South Carolina, Genetic Testing
To cite this article
Madison Noel Caudle,
Community Education of Personalized Breast Cancer Therapy Utilizing Students of HealthCare Professions, Clinical Medicine Research.
Vol. 6, No. 5,
2017, pp. 157-163.
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
American Cancer Society website. Cancer facts and figures 2015; http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsstatistics/cancerfactsfigures2015/index#. Accessed 8/8/16
National Cancer Institute website. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Breast Cancer; http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html. Accessed 8/8/16.
Jervin C, Clift J, Woods L et al. Health literacy in adult education: a natural partnership for health equity. Health Promotion Practice 2012; http://hpp.sagepub.com/content/13/6/738. Accessed 8/9/16
Tat J, Linh T. N, Hung S. Strategy for Sustaining Cancer Education Services for Underserved Communities. MEDSURG Nursing [serial online]. January 2017; 26(1):33-43. Available from: Consumer Health Complete - EBSCOhost, Ipswich, MA. Accessed August 31, 2017.
Wu, T. Y., Wozny, P. J., Raymond, D. M. III. (2013). Promoting colorectal cancer awareness in undergraduate community health nursing education: A community-academic collaboration. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 30 (4), 175-184.
US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for breast cancer: U. S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Nov 17; 151(10):716-26.
Metcalfe KA, Kim-Sing C, Ghadirian P, et. al. Health care provider recommendations for reducing cancer risks among women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Clinical Genetics 2014; 85: 21-30. Accessed 8/9/16.
Nelson H, Tyne K, et al. Screening for breast cancer; an update for the U. S. preventive services task force. Ann Intern Med. 2009; 151: 727-737. Accessed 8/9/16.
Ahmed N, Fort J, et al. Breast cancer knowledge and barriers to mammography in a low-income managed care population. Journal of Cancer Education. 2009; 24; 61-266. Accessed 8/10/16.
Westbrook MD, Kelly and Stearns MD, Vered. Pharmacogenomics of Breast Cancer Therapy: An Update. Pharmacol Ther. 2013 July; 139 (1): 1-11 doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.03.001.
Hormone Receptor Status. Breast Cancer. 2016. Web. Accessed August 24, 2016.
World Health Organization. 2014. Available at http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story076/en/. Accessed 8/10/16.
Pohlmann, Paula R., Mayer IA. et al. Resistance to trastuzumab in breast cancer. Clinical Cancer Research 15.24 (2009): 7479-7491.
Haghighi ST, Lamyian M, Granpaye L. Assessment of the Level of Health Literacy Among Fertile Iranian Women with Breast Cancer. Electron Physician. 2015 Oct: 7(6): 1359-1364.
U. S. Breast Cancer Statistics. Breast Cancer. 2016. Web. Accessed August 18 2016.
Paskelt ED, Tatum CM, D’Agostino R et. al. Community-based Intervention to Improve Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening: Results of the Forsyth County Cancer Screening (Fo Cas) Project. AACR. 1999; 8: 453-459.
Freeman HP. Patient Navidation: A Community Centered Approach to Reducing Cancer Mortality. J Cancer Educ. 2006; 21 (Suppl.): S11-S14.
Protheroe J, Nutbeam D, Rowland SG. Health Literacy: A Necessity for Increasing Participation in Healthcare. Br J Gen Prac. 2009 Oct; 59 (567):721-3.
Karcher R, Fitzpatrick DC, Leonard DJ, et. al. A Community-based Collaborative Approach to Improve Breast Cancer Screening in Underserved African American Women. J Canc Educ. 2014 29: 482-487. Doi 10.1007/s13187-014-0608-z.
Mabiso A, Williams KP, Todem D, et al. Longitudinal analysis of domain-level breast cancer literacy among African-American women. Health Education Research. 2010; 25: 151-161.
U S. Drug Store/Pharmacy Market-Statistics and Facts. Statista. 2016. Web. Accessed August 24, 2016.
O’Dea J. The Pharmacy’s New Role in Providing Healthcare Services. PM 360 2014, 1.