The Basis and Potentials of Ogunlade Sex Determination Electrocardiographic Score (OSDES) in Young Adults
Clinical Medicine Research
Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages: 58-62
Received: Mar. 1, 2015; Accepted: Mar. 12, 2015; Published: Mar. 17, 2015
Views 3108      Downloads 210
Oluwadare Ogunlade, Department of Physiological Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Muritala Abiola Asafa, Department of Physiological Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The potentials of electrocardiogram (ECG) in sex determination in young adults have not been extensively explored despite the fact that ECG is one of the most frequently performed medical procedures. This study aimed at developing a simple electrocardiographic score system that could assist in sex determination in young adults. Patterns of ECG in male and female young adults were carefully analyzed and features that could be used to delineate the ECG into male and female patterns were selected as criteria for formulation of a simple scoring system called Ogunlade sex determination electrocardiographic score (OSDES).Components of OSDES were point scores in four electrocardiographic parameters; T wave configuration in V1 (1-3), ST segment in V2 or V3 (1-3), QRS rotation (1-3) and heart rate (1-3). The total minimum and maximum scores were 4 and 12 respectively. An individual with a total score of < 7 was identified as a female while an individual with a score ≥ 7 was identified a male. Thus, with OSDES, ECG can be classified into two; male pattern and female pattern for male and female respectively. This unique scoring system was tested among 474 healthy young adults (294 males and 180 females). Two hundred and eighty eight (288) of the 294 males were correctly identified by OSDES as males while 174 of the 180 females were correctly identified as females (k = 0.946, p < 0.001). The study defined male and female ECG patterns and concluded that ECG can be used to determine sex among young adult population.
Basis, Potentials, Ogunlade Sex Determination Electrocardiographic Score, Young Adults
To cite this article
Oluwadare Ogunlade, Muritala Abiola Asafa, The Basis and Potentials of Ogunlade Sex Determination Electrocardiographic Score (OSDES) in Young Adults, Clinical Medicine Research. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2015, pp. 58-62. doi: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150402.16
H. Bazzet. An analysis of the time relations of electrocardiograms.Heart.1920,7 pp353-370.
R.Ashman. The normal duration of the QT interval.Am Heart J 1942, 23 pp 522-534.
R. M. Gowda, S. L. Wilbur, P. Schweitzer. Gender differences in cardiac electrophology and arrhythmia. Part 1, Cardiol 2006, 15(6) pp 296-302.
Ogunlade, A.O. Ayoka, A.O. Akintomide,O.E, Ajayi, O.E. Ukponmwan, O.B. Ogunlade. Gender differences in electrocardiogram of young adults in South-Western Nigeria. Eur J Sci Res 81pp 26-32.
P.M. Okin, M.J. Roman, R.B. Devereux, P. Kligfied. Gender differences and the electrocardiogram in left ventricular hypertrophy. Hypertension 1995, 25 pp 242-249.
E. Natsuyama. Sonographic determination of fetal sex from twelve weeks of gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984,149 pp748–57
B. O. Igbinedion, T. O. Akhigbe. The accuracy of 2D ultrasound prenatat sex determination. Niger Med J 2012, 53(2) pp71-75.
C. H. Ingerslev, B Solow. Sex differences craniofacial morphology. Acta Odontol Scand 1975, 33 (2) pp 85-94.
J. R. Koch, G.G. Koch. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 1977,33 pp159-174.
P. Kligfield, L. S Gettes, J.J. Bailey, R..Childers, B.J. Deal, W. Hancock et al. Recommendations for the Standardization and Interpretation of the Electrocardiogram. Part I: The Electrocardiogram and Its Technology. A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology; the American College of Cardiology Foundation; and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation 2007,115 pp 1306-1324.
A.D. Waller. A demonstration on man of electromotive changes accompanying the heart’s beat. J Physiol (London) 1887, 8 pp 229-234.
W. Einthoven. Le telecardiogramme. Arch Int de Physiol 1906, 14 pp 132-164.
D. M. Mirvis, A. L Goldberger. Electrocardiography. In: P. Libby, R.O. Bonow, D.L. Mann, D.P Zipes, E Braunwald.(eds). Braunwald’s heart disease: a textbook of cardiovascular medicine.8th Ed. Saunders Elsevier 2008 pp149-193.
C. Fisch. Evolution of the electrocardiogram. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989, 14 pp1127-1138.
H. H. Hecht, C.E Kossman. Atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction. Am J Cardiol 1973, 31pp 232-244.
M.E. Silverman, C.B. Upshaw, H.W. Lange. Woldermar Mobitz and His 1924 classification of second degree atrioventricular block. Circulation. 2004,110 pp 1162 -1167.
B.Surawicz, SR Parikh. Prevanlence of male and female pattern of early ventricular repolarization in the normal ECG of males and females from childhood to old age. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002, 40(10)pp1870-1876.
R.W. Scherptong, I.R. Henkens, S.C. Man, S.L. Cessie, H.W. Vliegen, A.C. Maan, M.J. Schalij, C.A. Swenne. Interpretation of spatial QRS-T angle: Normal limits in healthy subjects and implications for risk stratification. Circulation 2008,118 ppS_986.
P. Hingorani, M. Natekar, S. Deshmukh, D .R. Karnad, S. Kothari, D. Narula, Y. Lokhandwala. Morphological abnormalities in baseline ECGs in healthy normal volunteers participating in phase I studies. Indian J Med Res 2012,135 pp 322-330.
N. Kumar, D. Saini, V. Froelicher. A gender-based analysis of high school athletes using computerized electrocardiogram measurements. PLos ONE 2013,8(1) pp e53365.
T.V. Pharm. Gender differences in cardiac development: are hormones at the heart of the matter?. Cardiovasc Res 2003,57 pp 591-593.
X. Du. Gender modulates cardiac phenotype development in genetically modified mice. Cardiovasc Res 2004,63 pp 510-519.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186