There is a high smoking rate among male psychiatric nurses in Jordan and among psychiatric patients in general. Smoking addiction inhibits nurses from helping patients with smoking cessation. A better understanding of the smoking behaviors of male Jordanian psychiatric nurses is required if they help patients with smoking reduction and smoking cessation. This article reports the findings from a classical grounded theory study that explains why male Jordanian psychiatric nurses are not ready for a smoking cessation role. Analysis of the statements made by eight Jordanian psychiatric nurses during individual interviews identified the last phase in a psychosocial theory of the smoking trajectory of the smoking behaviors of these nurses, the contextualizing smoking behaviors over time theory. This phase explains eight categories describe the challenges involved in quitting. We conclude that local contextual challenges to quitting need to be understood if smoking reduction and cessation programs are to be effective.
Khaldoun M. Aldiabat,
Becoming an Exhausted Smoker: the Beginning of the End, American Journal of Nursing Science.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2013, pp. 6-13.
Haddad1, L. G. Al-Zyoud, S. Baker, N. A. Gharaibeh, H. Shahawy, O. E. Alramadhani, R. (2011). Secondhand Smoking in Jordan: Clearing the Air for One of the Highest Tobacco Prevalence Countries in the Middle East. Tobacco Use Insights, 4, 1-7. doi: 10.4137/TUI.S6802.
El-Khushman, H. M. Sharara, A. M. Al-Laham, Y. M. Hijazi, M. A. (2008). Cigarette smoking among health care workers at King Hussein Medical Center. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 3(3), 281-284. doi:10.1002/jhm .319.
Shishani, K. Nawafleh, H. Froelicher, E. S. (2008). Jordanian Nurses' and Physicians' Learning Needs for Promoting Smoking Cessation. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 23(2), 79-83. doi:10.1111/j.1751-7117.2008.07745.x.
Dickens, G. L. Stubbs, J. H. Haw, C. M. (2004). Smoking and mental health nurses: a survey of clinical staff in a psychiatric hospital. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 11(4), 445-451. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2004.00741.x.
Meltzer, H. Gill, B. Petticrew, M. Hinds, K. (1996). Economic activity social functioning of residents with psychiatric disorders, OCP surveys of psycatric morbidility in Great Britin Report 6, London,HMS.
Reilly, P. Murphy, L. Alderton, D. (2006) Challenging the smoking culture within a mental health service supportively. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 15(4), 272-278. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0349.2006.00434.x.
Hancock, B. Hancock, D. G. (1993). Registered Mental Nurses' perceived role in health education about smoking. Health Education Journal, 52(2), 85-90.
Boyd, M. A. (2008). Psychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice 4ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia.
Cataldo, J. K. (2001). The role of advanced practice psychiatric nurses in treating tobacco use and dependence. Archives of psychiatric nursing, 15(3), 107-119.
McCloughen, A. (2003). The association between schizophrenia and cigarette smoking: A review of the literature and implications for mental health nursing practice. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 12 (2), 119-129.
Van Dangon J. C. (1999). SmoKing and persistent mental illness : An exploratory study. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 37 (11), 8.
Froelicher, E. S. Kohlman, V. C. (2005). Tobacco Free Nurses: THE FACTS ON NURSES AND SMOKING. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 25(4), 198-199.
Rowe, K. Clark, J. M. (2000) The incidence of smoking amongst nurses: a review of the literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31, (5), 1046-1053.
Sperber, A. D. Geftler, A. Goren, M. Cohen, H. Levi, G. Raz, I. Mor, Z. Yachelevich, N. Malik, T. Shubin, A. Kachel, E. Perl, S. Steinberg, A. Sarov, B. Bearman, J. (1995). Medical students' contribution to the development of a smoke-free hospital policy in a university medical centre: a relevant learning experience. Medical Education, 29 (1), 43-47.
Strobl, J. Latter, S. (1998). Qualified nurse smokers’ attitudes towards a hospital smoking ban and its influence on their smoking behaviour. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27(1), 179-188.
McKenna, H. Slater, P. McCance, T. Bunting, B. Spiers, A. McElwee, G. (2001). Qualified nurses’ smoking prevalence: their reasons for smoking and desire to quit. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35 (5), 769-775.
Willaing, I. Ladelund, S. (2004). Smoking behavior among hospital staff still influences attitudes and counseling on smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 6(2), 369-375. doi:10.1080/14622200410001676422.
Chalmers, K. Bramadat, I. J. Cantin, B. Murnaghan, D. Shuttleworth, E. Shannon, S.-F. Tataryn, D. (2001). A Smoking Reduction and Cessation Program with Registered Nurses: Findings and Implications for Community Health Nursing. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 18(2), 115-134. doi:10.1207/1532765013 00118 539.
Sarna, L. Bialous, S. A. Wewers, M. E. Froelicher, E. S. Danao, L. (2005) Nurses, smoking, and the workplace. Research in Nursing & Health, 28(1), 79-90. doi:10.1002/nur.20059.
Freund, K. M. D'Agostino, R. B. Belanger, A. J. Kannel, W. B. Stokes, J., Predictors of Smoking Cessation: The Framingham Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1992, 135(9), 957-964.
Al-Motassem, Y. F. Bulatova, N. l. AbuRuz, S., Management of Coronary Artery Disease in Jordan: Cross-Sectional Comparative Study. Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2008, 1(1), 28-39.
Abu-Baker, N. Haddad, L. Mayyas, O. (2010). Smoking Behavior among Coronary Heart Disease Patients in Jordan: A Model from a Developing Country. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(3), 751-764.
Haddad, L. G. Malak, M. Z. (2002). Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among university students in Jordan. International journal of nursing studies, 39(8), 793-802. doi:10.1016/S0020-7489(02)00016-0.
Al-Matubsi1, H. Y. Kanaan, R. A. Hamdan, F. Salim, M. Oriquat, G. A. Al-Hanbali5, O. A. (2011). Smoking Practices in Jordanian People and their Impact on Semen Quality and Hormonal Levels among Adult Men. Central European Journal of Public Health, 19 (1), 54-59.
Schultz, A. S. H. (2003). Nursing and tobacco reduction: a review of the literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 40(6), 571-586. doi:10.1016/S0020-7489(03)00038-5.
Aldiabat, K. Clinton, M. (2012). Contextualizing Smoking Behaviour over Time: A Smoking Journey from Pleasuring to Suffering. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 3 (1), 1-19.
Glaser, B. G. Strauss, A. L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. ed. Aldine Transaction: Chicago.
Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C.C. (2005). The transtheoretical approach. In J.C. Norcross & M.R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration 2nd Ed. (pp. 147-171). New York: Oxford U. Press.
Blumer, H., Symbolic interationism: Perspective and method. ed. Prentice-Hall: NJ, 1969.
Prochaska, J. O. DiClemente, C. C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(3), 390-395. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.51.3.390.
DiClemente, C. C. (2006) Addiction And Change: How Addictions Develop And Addicted People Recover. ed. Guilford Press: New york.
Prochaska, J. O. Norcross, J. C. (2009). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Transtheoretical Analysis. 7 ed. Brooks/Cole: Pacific Grove.
Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. ed. Prentice-Hall: 'Vol.' p.
Mead, G., Mind, Self, and Society. ed. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1934 'Vol.' p.
Castrucci, B. C. Gerlach, K. K. Kaufman, N. J. Orleans, C. T. (2002). Adolescents’ acquisition of cigarettes through noncommercial sources. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(4), 322-326. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00393-2.
Piko, B. F. Bak, J. Gibbons, F. X. (2007). Prototype perception and smoking: Are negative or positive social images more important in adolescence? Addictive Behaviors, 32(8), 1728-1732. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.12.003.
Weinstein, N. D. (1989). Effects of personal experience on self-protective behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 105(1), 31-50. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.105.1.31.