Studying the Relationship Between Body Mass Index, Waist-Hip Ratio and Quality of Life Among Adult Saudi Females
American Journal of Nursing Science
Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 251-257
Received: Oct. 3, 2016; Accepted: Oct. 21, 2016; Published: Nov. 15, 2016
Views 3159      Downloads 99
Author
Bahiga Galal Abd El-Aal, Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-kom, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Overweight and obesity are received a great concern and becoming a high priority globally. Obesity is associated with diversity of health problem as well as decline in quality of life. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of obesity; the association between body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and quality of life. The design used in this study was descriptive correlational design. Study subjects were convenience samples of 310 adult female recruited from female colleges in Wadi Addawasir. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaire that consisted of socio-demographic data, participants' weight perception, World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-Brief) and anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference. The main findings of this study indicated that the prevalence of general obesity according to BMI was 29.7%, and abdominal obesity according to WC, and WHR were 34.2% and 35.5%, respectively. A statistically significant difference between participants' weight perception and the existing BMI, X 2 = 50.52, P = 0.00, indicated participants misperception of their weight. The mean total score of WHOQOL-Brief scale was (70.01±11.31) and social relationships domain was the highest score, the mean = 73.02 ± 17.10, while lowest score was psychological domain, the mean = 64.76 ± 13.73. Moreover, 32.3% of subjects good quality of life, while only 3.9% had poor quality of life. A significant negative correlation was revealed between BMI, WC, WHR and total score of quality of life, p = -.012,.033,.012 respectively. Moreover, the participants with increased BMI had decreased quality of life compared to those of normal BMI F = 3.209, P =.023. Conclusion: General and abdominal obesity were highly prevalent among adult Saudi females as measured by BMI, WHR. Misperception of weight was revealed and minority of subjects had good quality of life. Obesity was associated with significant decrease in quality of life. Recommendation: Effective health education strategies are required to help in increase females' awareness and perception of their weight, thus affecting their decisions and behaviors to minimize obesity and its negative influences on their health and consequently their quality of life.
Keywords
Obesity, World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief, Weight Perception, Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist-Hip Ratio
To cite this article
Bahiga Galal Abd El-Aal, Studying the Relationship Between Body Mass Index, Waist-Hip Ratio and Quality of Life Among Adult Saudi Females, American Journal of Nursing Science. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2016, pp. 251-257. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.20160506.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Flegal K. M., Carrol M. D., Ogden C. L., and Curtin L. R. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults. JAMA; 303: 235-241.
[2]
Pimenta F. B. C., Bertrand E., Mograbi D. C., Shinohara H., and Landeira-Fernandez J. (2015). The relationship between obesity and quality of life in Brazilian adults. Frontiers in Psychology; 6: 966.
[3]
Al-Nozha M. M., Al-Mazrou Y. Y., Al-Amateur M. A., Arafah M. R., Khalil M. Z., Khan N. B., Al-Marzouki K., Abdullah M. A., Al-Khadra A. H., Al-Harthi S. S., Al-Shahid M. S., Al-Mobeireek A., and Nouh M. S. (2005). Obesity in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J; May, 26 (5): 824-9.
[4]
Al Othaimeen Al., Al-Nozha M., and Osman A. K. (2007). Obesity an emerging problem in Saudi Arabia; analysis of data from national nutrition survey. East Mediterr Health J; 13 (2): 441.
[5]
Aldaqal S. M. and Sehlo M. G. (2013). Self-esteem and quality of life in adolescents with extreme obesity in Saudi Arabia: the effect of weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. General Hospital Psychiatry; 35: 259–264.
[6]
Must A., Spadano J., Coakley E. H., Field A. E., Colditz, G., and William H. Dietz W. H. (1999). The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. The Journal of American Medical Association; 282 (16): 1523–1529.
[7]
Connolly B. S., Barnett C., Vogt K., Li T., Stone J, and Boyd N. (2002). A meta-analysis of published literature on waist-to-hip ratio and risk of breast cancer. Nutr Cancer; 44: 127–138.
[8]
Hainer V, Toplak, H, and Mitrakou A. (2008). Treatment modalities of obesity. Diabeties care; 31 (Supplement 2), S269-S277.
[9]
Kulie T., Slattengren A., Redmer J., Counts H., Eglash A., and Schrager S. (2011). Obesity and Women's Health: An Evidence-Based Review. J Am Board Fam Med; January-February, 24 (1) 75-85.
[10]
Hu F. B. (2003). Overweight and obesity in women: health risks and consequences. J Womens Health (Larchmt); 12 (2): 163-72.
[11]
Memish Z. A., El Bcheraoui C., Tuffaha M., Robinson M., Daoud F., Jaber S., Mikhitarian S., Al Saeedi M., AlMazroa M. A., Mokdad A. H., and Al Rabeeah A. A., (2014). Obesity and Associated Factors - Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013. Prev Chronic Dis; 11: 140236.
[12]
Welborn T. A. and Dhaliwal S. S. (2007). Preferred clinical measures of central obesity for predicting mortality. Eur J Clin Nutr; 61: 1373–1379.
[13]
Jansses I., Katzmarzyk P. T, and Ross P. (2004). Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. Am J Clin Nutr.; 79, 379–384.
[14]
Bigaard J., Frederiksen K., Tjønneland A., Thomsen B. L., Overvad K., Heitmann B. L. et al. (2005). Waist circumference and body composition in relation to all-cause mortality in middle-aged men and women. Int J Obes (Lond); 29, 778– 784.
[15]
Huxley R., Mendis S., Zheleznyakov E., Reddy S. and Chan J (2010). Body mass index, waist circumference and waist: hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk—a review of the literature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 64: 16–22.
[16]
De Koning L., Merchant A. T, Pogue J., and Anand S. S. (2007). Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular events: meta-regression analysis of prospective studies. Eur Heart J; 28: 850–856.
[17]
World Health Organization. (1996). what quality of life? The WHOQOL Group. World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment. World Health Forum; 17: 354–356.
[18]
Tessier A., Zavorsky G. S., Kim D. J., Carli F., Christou N., Nancy E., and Mayo N. E. (2012). Understanding the determinants of weight-related quality of life among bariatric surgery candidates. Journal of Obesity; Vol. 2012, Article ID 713426, 9 pages.
[19]
Bullinger M., Anderson R., Cella D., and Aaronson N. (1993). Developing and evaluating cross-cultural instruments from minimum requirements to optimal models. Quality of Life Research; 2 (6): 451–459.
[20]
Najim A. A. (2014). Effect of intervention educational programs on improving quality of life among overweight / obese university students in Gaza Strip. Open Journal of Nursing; 4: 886-895.
[21]
Al-Haqwi A. I., Al-Nasir M., Ahmad N., Masaudi E., Alotaibi S. S., and Hamad B. (2015). Obesity and overweight in a major family practice center, central region, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of obesity, 3 (1): 12-17.
[22]
Hlatky M. A., Chung S. C., Escobedo J., Hillegass W. B., Melsop K, Rogers, W, et al. (2010). The effect of obesity on quality of life in patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease. Am. Heart J, 159: 292–300.
[23]
Buttitta M., Iliescu C., Rousseau A., and Guerrien, A. (2014). Quality of life in overweight and obese children and adolescents: a literature review. Qual. Life Res. 23: 1117–1139.
[24]
McLaughlin L., and Hinyard L. J. (2014). The relationship between health-related quality of life and body mass index. West J Nurs Res; 36 (8): 989-1001.
[25]
Habib F., ALFozan H., Barnawi N., Al Motairi W., Al Anizy A. H., Al Anizy A. S., Al Unizi A. E., and Al Anazi M. H. (2015). Relationship between body mass index, self-esteem and quality of life among adolescent Saudi female. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health care, 5 (10): 130-139.
[26]
Al Senany S. and Al Saif A. (2015). Assessment of physical health status and quality of life among Saudi older adults. Phys Ther Sci. 27 (6): 1691–1695.
[27]
WHOQOL group (1998). Development of the WHO-QOL BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28: 551–558.
[28]
WHOQOL Manual-Body.doc, updated (2005). Geneva, World Health Organization.
[29]
WHO Expert Consultation Report (2008). Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio. Geneva, World Health Organization.
[30]
World Health Organization (1998). Obesity – Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic: Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity. Geneva, World Health Organization.
[31]
Rasheed P., Abou-Hozaifa B. M., and Khan A. (1994). Obesity among young Saudi female adults: a prevalence study on medical and nursing students. Public Health, 108 (4): 289-94.
[32]
Kelishadi R., Alikhani S., Delavari A., Alaedini F., Safaie A., and Hojatzadeh E. (2008). Obesity and associated lifestyle behaviors in Iran: findings from the first national non-communicable disease risk factor surveillance survey. Public Health Nutr.; 11: 246–51.
[33]
Muhihi A. J., Njelekela M. A., Mpembeni R., Mwiru R. S., Mligiliche N., and Mtabaji J. (2012) Obesity, overweight, and perceptions about body weight among middle-aged adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. International Scholarly Research Notices, Obesity Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 368520, 6 pages.
[34]
Dorosty A. R., Mehdikhani S., Sotoudeh, G., Rahimi A., Fariba Koohdani F., and Tehrani P. (2014). Perception of weight and health status among women working at health centres of Tehran. J Health Popul Nutr; 32 (1): 58–67.
[35]
Yaemsiri S., Slining M., and Agawal S. K. (2011). Perceived weight status, overweight diagnosis, and weight control among US adults: the NHANES 2003-2008 study. International Journal of obesity; 35, 1063–1070.
[36]
Rasheed P. (1998). Perception of body weight and self-reported eating and exercise behavior among obese and non-obese women in Saudi Arabia. Public Health; 112 (6): 409–414.
[37]
Qauhiz N. M. A. (2010) “Obesity among Saudi female university students: dietary habits and health behaviours,” Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association; 85 (1-2): 45–59.
[38]
Khalaf A., Westergren A., Berggren V., Ekblom Ö., and Al-Hazzaa H. M. (2015). Perceived and ideal body image in young women in South Western Saudi Arabia. Journal of Obesity, Volume 2015 Article ID 697163, 7.
[39]
Pimenta F. B. C., Daniel C. Mograbi D. C., Shinohara H. and Landeira-Fernandez J. (2015). The relationship between obesity and quality of life in Brazilian adults. Frontiers in Psychology; vol. 6: Article 966.
[40]
Theodoropoulou E., Karteroliotis K., Koskolou M., and Nassis G. (2013). The association of total and abdominal obesity with health- related quality of in a sample of Greek healthy adult. Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health; 10 (2): e 8 8 4 2 - 1 - e 8 8 4 2 - 9.
[41]
Baldock K. L., Gill T. K., Chittleborough C. R., Taylor A. W. and the North West Adelaide health study Team (2007). The relationship between waist to hip and quality of life. Results from the North West AdelaideNorth Study. Stage 2, Epidemiological Series Report No. 24.
[42]
Khawaja M. and Afifi-Soweid R. A. (2004). Images of body weight among young men and women: evidence from Beirut, Lebanon. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health; 58 (4): 352–353.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186