Child sexual abuse is one of the most studied childhood traumatic events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sexual abuse prevention program for school age children. Research design: A quasi-experimental design was utilized to fulfill the aim of this study. Setting: The present study was conducted at one Primary School in Benha City. Sample: 100 students from previously mentioned setting by using a multi stage simple random sample technique were used in this study. Tools: Two tools were used in data collection, a structured interviewing questionnaire and pre/post child sexual abuse likert scale to assess children attitude. Result: Indicated that 74% of boys and 80% of girls aged 11 ≤ 12 years, 37.0% of boys and 35.0% of girls were exposed to sexual abuse at home, 73% and 46% of the studied school age children had unsatisfactory knowledge about sexual abuse prevention, in boys and girls respectively pre program, while 84% and 95% of them had satisfactory knowledge post program in boys and girls respectively. There were significant positive correlation of total children’ knowledge and attitude with their age, gender, exposure to sexual abuse and parent relationship. Conclusion: The study concluded that the prevention program lead to significant improvement in children knowledge and attitude about sexual abuse prevention. Recommendation: Parents must be involved in the process of sexual abuse prevention and provision of instructional booklets for children to increase self protection knowledge and skills to avoid child sexual abuse.
Mahbouba Sobhy Abd El Aziz,
Safaa Salah Ismail,
Howaida Moawad Ahmed,
Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for School Age Children, American Journal of Nursing Science.
Vol. 6, No. 1,
2017, pp. 1-10.
Abd-Erazek, A., (2011): Assessment of student`s awareness about influenza A/H1N1 in the secondary schools of girls at Benha City. Master Thesis, Faculty of Nursing, Benha University, P. 30.
Abd-El Rhman, S., (2001): Assessment of physical and emotional abuse Among primary school children in Port- Said city, unpublished Master thesis, Suez Canal University, Faculty of Nursing pp. 80-85.
Baker, C, K., Gleason, K., Naai 1, r., Mitchell, J., Trecker, C., (2012): Increasing Knowledge of Sexual Abuse: A Study with Elementary School Children in Hawai, Research on Social Work Practice, 23 (2) 167-178.
Deblinger, E., Thakkar-Kolar, R, R,. and Berry, E, J., (2010): Caregivers’ Efforts to Educate Their Children About Child Sexual Abuse, UMDNJ–School of Osteopathic Medicine.
Finkelhor, D. (2007): Prevention of sexual abuse through educational programs directed toward children. Pediatrics, 120 (3): 640-645. Retrieved from: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.
Finkelhor, D., Shattuck, A., Turner, H. A., and Hamby, S. L. (2014): The lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and sexual assault assessed in late adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55, 329–333.
Finnilä-Tuohimaa, K., Santtila, P., Sainio, M., Niemi, P. &Sandnabba K. (2005): Connections between experience, beliefs, scientiﬁc knowledge, and self-evaluated expertise among investigators of child sexual abuse in Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 46, 1–10.
Goldman, J. D. G., & Bradley, G. L. (2011): Assessing primary school student-teachers’ pedagogic implementations in child sexual abuse protection education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 26, 479-493.
Hitrec, G. (2015): Teaching children to protect themselves from sexual abuse Head of the Child Assault Prevention Programme (CAP) Croatia.
Hurtado, A., . Katz, C., Ciro, D., Guttfreund, D. and Digna , N.,(2014): ''Children's Knowledge of Sexual Abuse Prevention in El Salvador." Annals of Global Health 80 (2): March–April, PP. 103–107.
Johnston, M., Phanhtharath, P., Jackson, N and Brenda, S., (2010): ''The bullying aspect of workplace violence in nursing ''. JONA’S Health Care Low, Ethics and Regulation, 12 (2): 36-42.
Kenny, M. C., Wurtele, S. K., & Alonso, L. (2012): Evaluation of a personal safety program with Latino preschoolers. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 21, 368-385.
Khaled, E., (2012): "Prevalence and pattern of child sexual abuse reported by cross sectional study among the University students, Sohag University, Egypt". Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences 2 (3): 89–96.
Krishnakumar, P., Satheesan, K., and Geeta, M. G., Sureshkumar, K.,(2013): Prevalence and Spectrum of Sexual Abuse Among Adolescents, in Kerala, South India.
Kurtuncu, M., Akhan, L, U., and Yildiz, H., (2015): The Sexual development and Education of Preschool Children: Knowledge and Opinions from Doctors and Nurses, Published online: 22 January, This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Leeb, R., Paulozzi, L., Melanson, C., Simon, T, and Arias, L., (2008): "Child maltreatment surveillance: Uniform definitions for public health and recommendation data elements''. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 320 (25): 76-173.
Mahmoud, S., Yousif, H and Ismail, S. (2011): Health promotion program to improve the life style of school children living in Slum Area in Helwan Governorate. Life Science Journal; 8 (4): 618.
Mandy (2015): Teaching Sex Abuse Prevention In Schools Is Critical, Available at: https://healingbeyondsurvival.wordpress.com/2015/05/01/teaching-sex-abuse-prevention-in-schools-is-critical/
Martin, E. and William, M., (2008):"Is your hospital safe, Disruptive behavior and workplace bullying". Hospital topics, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 86 (3): 8-21.
McKee, B. E., & Dillenburger, K. (2012): Effectiveness of child protection training for pre-service early childhood educators. International Journal of Educational Research, 53, 348.
National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (2016): Child abuse and neglect available at: https://www.nspcc.org.uk/preventing- abuse/child-abuse-and-neglect 10-6
Pizzato, E, S., and Bernardes, M, W., (2006): Development of a questionnaire for the assessment of sexual abuse in children and estimation of its discriminant validity: a case-control study, Journal. Pediatra. (RioJ.) vol. 82 no. 6 Porto Alegre.
Pitts, C., (2015): Child sexual abuse prevention programs for pre-schoolers: A synthesis of current evidence, Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, Sydney.
Reza, A., Breiding, M., Gulaid J., Mercy, J., Blanton, C. and Mthethwa, Z., (2009): Sexual violence and its health consequences for female children in Swaziland: A cluster survey study Lancet, 373: 1966-1972.
Rheingold, A, A., Zajac, K., Patton, M., de Arellano, M., Saunders, B., Kilpatrick, D., and Chapman, J. E., (2014): Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training for Childcare Professionals: An Independent Multi-Site Randomized Controlled Trial of Stewards of Children, Published online: 12 July, Society for Prevention Research.
The Child Assessment Center (2014): Child Sexual Abuse Facts, Available @: http:// www. cachouston.org/child-sexual-abuse-facts.
Topping, K, J., and Barron, I, G., (2010): School-based Abuse Prevention: Effect on Disclosures, Published online: 4 July, Springer Science, Business Media, LLC
Walsh, K., and Brandon, L., (2011): Their Children’s First Educators: Parents’ Views About Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education, Published online: 14 September, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Walsh, K., Zwi, K., Woolfenden, S., and Shlonsky A. (2015): School-based programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse, available at: http://onlineThe Cochrane Library. wiley.com.
White, L., Duncan, G. and Baumle, W. (2010): Bruising in children who are assessed for suspected physical abuse. Ann Emerg Med J., 39 (5): 9-50, 3.
Wiley (2015): Teaching children in schools about sexual abuse may help them report abuse, Science Daily available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/.
Wurtele, S, K., Moreno, T., and Kenny, M, C., (2008): Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Workshop for Parents of Young Children.
Zhang, W., Chen., J., Feng, Y., Li, J., Liu, C., and Zhao, X., (2013): Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers, Research on Social Work Practice, Vol. 24 (4) 428-436.
Zhang, W., Chen, J., and Liu, F., (2015): Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early Preschool Teachers’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Their Training Education in China, 1-8, sgo.sagepub.com.
Zwi, K., Woolfenden, S., Wheeler, D. M., O’Brien, T., Tait, P., & Williams, K. J. (2009): School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse, Issue 3.