The Relationship Between Psychological Contract Breach, Organizational Identification, and Organizational Agility Among Nursing Faculty Members
American Journal of Nursing Science
Volume 8, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages: 304-312
Received: Sep. 20, 2019; Accepted: Oct. 11, 2019; Published: Oct. 23, 2019
Views 443      Downloads 199
Yaldez Khairy Zein El Din, Nursing Administration Department, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El Sherouk, Egypt; Nursing Administration Department, Damanhour University, El Sherouk, Egypt
Ghada Moh Samir El Hessewi, Nursing Administration Department, Damanhour University, El Sherouk, Egypt; Department of Heath Sciences, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Psychological contract is defined as the unwritten or hidden agreement between both the employers and the employees to ensure reciprocity and safe productive work environment. The concept of the relationship between Psychological Contract Breach (PCB) as one of many recognized antecedents of organizational identification has been emphasised for years. Organizational Identification (OI) is defined as the extent to which both the organisation and the employee’s identities are overlapped. Organizational Identification (OI) has many benefits. For instance, it has a robust effect on the employees’ cognitive abilities, attitude, and behavior including their organizational agility and acceptance to the external and internal environmental forces that induce changes rapidly. Organizational agility (OA) requires rapid adaptation of new services, technologies, and personnel in order to react successfully to sudden shifts or changes in the market. Aim: To determine the relationship between Psychological Contract Breach (PCB), Organizational Identification (OI), and Organizational Agility (OA). Design: A descriptive correlational research design is used. Setting: Faculty of Nursing, Damanhur University. Subjects: The study includes all faculty members N=200, (56) academic staff, (85) non-academic (TA and Instructors), and (59) employees. Instrument: A questionnaire of 40 statements on a 5 point-Likert scale to measure (PCB), (OI) and (OA). Results: The highest mean percent score (86.10±12.86) was for Organizational Identification (OI), while the lowest percent score (66.68±12.0) was for overall PCB dimension. Overall PCB has a negative significant correlation with OI where (r=-0.609) and p=<0.001. In relation to OA, it has significant negative correlation with transactional PCB (r=-0.225), relational PCB (r=-0.169), and OI (r=-0.256). Recommendations: 1. To conduct a qualitative study about Psychological Contract Breach in order to generate more information about employees' expectations. 2. To develop a training program for all the Faculty of Nursing staff members, which can enhance their cognitive abilities to be able to respond rapidly to any sudden changes in the market.
Organizational Identification, Psychological Contract, Organizational Agility, Contract Breach, Changing Environment, Organizational Identity, Higher Education
To cite this article
Yaldez Khairy Zein El Din, Ghada Moh Samir El Hessewi, The Relationship Between Psychological Contract Breach, Organizational Identification, and Organizational Agility Among Nursing Faculty Members, American Journal of Nursing Science. Vol. 8, No. 6, 2019, pp. 304-312. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.20190806.13
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Vantilborgh T, Bidee J, Pepermans R, Griep Y, Hofmans J. Antecedents of psychological contract breach: The role of job demands, job resources, and affect. PloS one. 2016 May 12; 11 (5): e0154696.
Korte R, Mercurio ZA. Pragmatism and human resource development: Practical foundations for research, theory, and practice. Human Resource Development Review. 2017 Mar; 16 (1): 60-84.
Conway N, Coyle-Shapiro JA. The reciprocal relationship between psychological contract fulfilment and employee performance and the moderating role of perceived organizational support and tenure. Journal of occupational and Organizational Psychology. 2012 Jun; 85 (2): 277-99.
Morrison EW, Robinson SL. When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops. Academy of management Review. 1997 Jan 1; 22 (1): 226-56.
Bordia P, Restubog SL, Tang RL. When employees strike back: investigating mediating mechanisms between psychological contract breach and workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2008 Sep; 93 (5): 1104.
Sayers JK, Sears KL, Kelly KM, Harbke CR. When employees engage in workplace incivility: The interactive effect of psychological contract violation and organizational justice. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal. 2011 Dec 1; 23 (4): 269-83.
Agarwal UA, Bhargava S. Effects of psychological contract breach on organizational outcomes: Moderating role of tenure and educational levels. Vikalpa. 2013 Jan; 38 (1): 13-26.
Shoss MK, Jundt DK, Kobler A, Reynolds C. Doing bad to feel better? An investigation of within-and between-person perceptions of counterproductive work behavior as a coping tactic. Journal of Business Ethics. 2016 Sep 1; 137 (3): 571-87.
Rousseau DM. Psychological contracts in the workplace: Understanding the ties that motivate. Academy of Management Perspectives. 2004 Feb 1; 18 (1): 120-7.
Kim TT, Karatepe OM, Lee G. Psychological contract breach and service innovation behavior: psychological capital as a mediator. Service Business. 2018 Jun 1; 12 (2): 305-29.
Kerr SP, Kerr WR. Economic impacts of immigration: A survey. National Bureau of Economic Research; 2011 Jan 27. Available at: Accessed in July 2019.
Epitropaki O. A multi-level investigation of psychological contract breach and organizational identification through the lens of perceived organizational membership: Testing a moderated–mediated model. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 2013 Jan; 34 (1): 65-86.
Chernyak-Hai L, Tziner A. Relationships between counterproductive work behavior, perceived justice and climate, occupational status, and leader-member exchange. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones. 2014 Apr 1; 30 (1): 1-2.
Van Knippenberg D, Sleebos E. Organizational identification versus organizational commitment: self-definition, social exchange, and job attitudes. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior. 2006 Aug; 27 (5): 571-84.
Carmeli A, Gilat G, Waldman DA. The role of perceived organizational performance in organizational identification, adjustment and job performance. Journal of Management Studies. 2007 Sep; 44 (6): 972-92.
Blader SL, Tyler TR. Testing and extending the group engagement model: Linkages between social identity, procedural justice, economic outcomes, and extrarole behavior. Journal of applied psychology. 2009 Mar; 94 (2): 445.
Lee ES, Park TY, Koo B. Identifying organizational identification as a basis for attitudes and behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Psychological bulletin. 2015 Sep; 141 (5): 1049.
Walumbwa FO, Avolio BJ, Zhu W. How transformational leadership weaves its influence on individual job performance: The role of identification and efficacy beliefs. Personnel psychology. 2008 Dec; 61 (4): 793-825.
Ashforth BE. Distinguished scholar invited essay: Exploring identity and identification in organizations: Time for some course corrections. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. 2016 Nov; 23 (4): 361-73.
Galvin BM, Lange D, Ashforth BE. Narcissistic organizational identification: Seeing oneself as central to the organization's identity. Academy of Management Review. 2015 Apr; 40 (2): 163-81.
He H, Brown AD. Organizational identity and organizational identification: A review of the literature and suggestions for future research. Group & Organization Management. 2013 Feb; 38 (1): 3-5.
Bartels J, Douwes R, De Jong M, Pruyn A. Organizational identification during a merger: Determinants of employees' expected identification with the new organization. British Journal of Management. 2006 Mar; 17 (S1): S49-67.
Alzoubi K, Hamasha MM, Lu S, Sammakia B. Bending fatigue study of sputtered ITO on flexible substrate. Journal of Display Technology. 2011 Sep 19; 7 (11): 593-600.
Rahimiatani A, Zare H, Yazdani H. Increasing Organizational Agility based on Effective Meta-Organizational Parameters. Postmodern Openings/Deschideri Postmoderne. 2018 Dec 1; 9 (4).
Holbeche L. The Agile Organization: How to build an innovative, sustainable and resilient business. Kogan Page Publishers; 2015 Jun 3.
Al-Haddad S, Kotnour T. Integrating the organizational change literature: a model for successful change. Journal of Organizational Change Management. 2015 Apr 13; 28 (2): 234-62.
Meyer P. Agility shift: Creating agile and effective leaders, teams, and organizations. Routledge; 2016 Nov 3.
Yeadon-Lee A. Lead and disrupt: How to solve the innovators dilemma. Action Learning: Research and Practice. 2018; 15 (1): 72-3. https: //
Worley CG, Williams TD, Lawler III EE. The agility factor: Building adaptable organizations for superior performance. John Wiley & Sons; 2014 Aug 4.
Nafei WA. Organizational agility: the key to improve organizational performance. International Business Research. 2016; 9 (3): 97-111.
Kotter JP. Accelerate: Building strategic agility for a faster-moving world. Harvard Business Review Press; 2014 Feb 25.
Aguirre D, Alpern M. 10 principles of leading change management. Strategy + Business; 2014 Jun 6. 1-10.
Cygan A. Higher Education Reform in Egypt: Putting Students at The Center. March 2019. Accessed in: September 2019, Available at:
Bal PM, De Lange AH, Jansen PG, Van Der Velde ME. A longitudinal study of Age-Related differences in reactions to psychological contract breach. Applied Psychology. 2013 Jan; 62 (1): 157-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2012.00524.x.
Payne SC, Culbertson SS, Lopez YP, Boswell WR, Barger EJ. Contract breach as a trigger for adjustment to the psychological contract during the first year of employment. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 2015 Mar; 88 (1): 41-60. doi: 10.1111/joop.12077.
O’Neill TA, Hastings SE. Explaining workplace deviance behavior with more than just the “Big Five”. Personality and Individual Differences. 2011 Jan 1; 50 (2): 268-73.
Ahmed E, D’Netto B, Chelliah J, Fein E. Psychological contract breach: Consequences of unkept promises of permanent employment. Contemporary Management Research. 2016 Jun 29; 12 (2).
Anjum MA, Parvez A. Counterproductive behavior at work: A comparison of blue collar and white collar workers. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS). 2013; 7 (3): 417-34.
Jamil A, Raja U, Darr W. Psychological contract types as moderator in the breach-violation and violation-burnout relationships. The Journal of psychology. 2013 Sep 1; 147 (5): 491-515. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2012.717552.
Coyle-Shapiro JA, Conway N. Exchange relationships: Examining psychological contracts and perceived organizational support. Journal of applied psychology. 2005 Jul; 90 (4): 774.
Harrington JR, Lee JH. What drives perceived fairness of performance appraisal? Exploring the effects of psychological contract fulfillment on employees’ perceived fairness of performance appraisal in US federal agencies. Public Personnel Management. 2015 Jun; 44 (2): 214-38.
Zagenczyk TJ, Cruz KS, Woodard AM, Walker JC, Few WT, Kiazad K, Raja M. The moderating effect of Machiavellianism on the psychological contract breach–Organizational identification/disidentification relationships. Journal of Business and Psychology. 2013 Sep 1; 28 (3): 287-99.
Jin Kim H, Shin B, Lee H. The mediating role of psychological contract breach in IS outsourcing: inter-firm governance perspective. European Journal of Information Systems. 2013 Sep 1; 22 (5): 529-47.
Anderson BK. Psychological contracts: A feature based approach to understanding transactional and relational contracts. Available at:
Robinson SL, Wolfe Morrison E. The development of psychological contract breach and violation: A longitudinal study. Journal of organizational Behavior. 2000 Aug; 21 (5): 525-46.
Glavas A, Godwin LN. Is the perception of ‘goodness’ good enough? Exploring the relationship between perceived corporate social responsibility and employee organizational identification. Journal of business ethics. 2013 Apr 1; 114 (1): 15-27.
Riketta M, Van Dick R. Foci of attachment in organizations: A meta-analytic comparison of the strength and correlates of workgroup versus organizational identification and commitment. Journal of vocational behavior. 2005 Dec 1; 67 (3): 490-510.
Mahmoudi G, Abdi Talarposhti M. An assessment of agility in selected hospitals of Mazandaran province, Iran. Journal of Basic Research in Medical Sciences. 2018 Jun 10; 5 (3): 32-41.
Giachetti RE, Martinez LD, Sáenz OA, Chen CS. Analysis of the structural measures of flexibility and agility using a measurement theoretical framework. International journal of production economics. 2003 Oct 11; 86 (1): 47-62.
Sidky A, Arthur J, Bohner S. A disciplined approach to adopting agile practices: the agile adoption framework. Innovations in systems and software engineering. 2007 Sep 1; 3 (3): 203-16.
Tsourveloudis NC, Valavanis KP. On the measurement of enterprise agility. Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems. 2002 Mar 1; 33 (3): 329-42.
Yusuf YY, Gunasekaran A, Musa A, Dauda M, El-Berishy NM, Cang S. A relational study of supply chain agility, competitiveness and business performance in the oil and gas industry. International Journal of Production Economics. 2014 Jan 1; 147: 531-43.
Salmanoğlu M, Coşkunçay A, Yildiz A, Demirörs O. An Exploratory Case Study for Assessing the Measurement Capability of an Agile Organization. Software Quality Professional. 2018 Mar 1; 20 (2).
Felipe CM, Roldán JL, Leal-Rodríguez AL. An explanatory and predictive model for organizational agility. Journal of Business Research. 2016 Oct 1; 69 (10): 4624-31.
IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
Piccoli B, De Witte H. Job insecurity and emotional exhaustion: Testing psychological contract breach versus distributive injustice as indicators of lack of reciprocity. Work & Stress. 2015 Jul 3; 29 (3): 246-63.
Bauer TN, Bodner T, Erdogan B, Truxillo DM, Tucker JS. Newcomer adjustment during organizational socialization: a meta-analytic review of antecedents, outcomes, and methods. Journal of applied psychology. 2007 May; 92 (3): 707.
Ashforth BE, Rogers KM, Corley KG. Identity in organizations: Exploring cross-level dynamics. Organization science. 2011 Oct; 22 (5): 1144-56.
Colman HL, Lunnan R. Organizational identification and serendipitous value creation in post-acquisition integration. Journal of management. 2011 May; 37 (3): 839-60.
Millward LJ, Haslam SA. Who are we made to think we are? Contextual variation in organizational, workgroup and career foci of identification. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 2013 Mar; 86 (1): 50-66.
Brickson SL. Athletes, best friends, and social activists: An integrative model accounting for the role of identity in organizational identification. Organization Science. 2013 Feb; 24 (1): 226-45.
Lapointe É, Vandenberghe C, Boudrias JS. Psychological contract breach, affective commitment to organization and supervisor, and newcomer adjustment: A three-wave moderated mediation model. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2013 Dec 1; 83 (3): 528-38.
Bayram A, Zeybek A. Organizational Identification and Psychological Contract Relationship between Public Employees. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance. 2016 Jun; 7 (3). Available at Accessed on September 2019.
Sulu S, Ceylan A, Kaynak R. Work alienation as a mediator of the relationship between organizational injustice and organizational commitment: Implications for healthcare professionals. International Journal of Business and Management. 2010 Aug 1; 5 (8): 27.
Oreg S, Sverdlik N. Ambivalence toward imposed change: The conflict between dispositional resistance to change and the orientation toward the change agent. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2011 Mar; 96 (2): 337.
Madsen SR, Miller D, John CR. Readiness for organizational change: do organizational commitment and social relationships in the workplace make a difference? Human Resource Development Quarterly. 2005 Jun; 16 (2): 213-34.
Bartels J, Pruyn A, de Jong M. Employee identification before and after an internal merger: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 2009 Mar; 82 (1): 113-28.
Ng TW, Feldman DC, Lam SS. Psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors: a latent growth modeling approach. Journal of applied Psychology. 2010 Jul; 95 (4): 744.
Bal PM, De Lange AH, Jansen PG, Van Der Velde ME. Psychological contract breach and job attitudes: A meta-analysis of age as a moderator. Journal of vocational behavior. 2008 Feb 1; 72 (1): 143-58.
Khalili A, Asmawi A. Appraising the impact of gender differences on organizational commitment: Empirical evidence from a private SME in Iran. International Journal of Business and Management. 2012 Mar 1; 7 (5): 100.
Edwards MR, Peccei R. Perceived organizational support, organizational identification, and employee outcomes. Journal of Personnel Psychology. 2010 Feb 26.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186