Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavioural Practice of Elementary Teacher of ADHD Children: Impact of an Educational Intervention
American Journal of Nursing Science
Volume 8, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages: 329-341
Received: Oct. 15, 2019; Accepted: Nov. 6, 2019; Published: Nov. 20, 2019
Views 148      Downloads 105
Authors
Amal Ibrahim Khalil, Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Menofyia University, Shebin Elkom, Egypt; College of Nursing, King Saud University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Faten Ahmed Alshareef, College of Nursing, King Saud University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Halemah Ghoneem Alshumrani, College of Nursing, King Saud University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Background: According to Saudi Arabia Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Society, ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorder among children and affect both gender with total prevalence of male: 7.4% and female: 4.2% in Jeddah city. The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of an educational program on exchanging elementary school teachers’ knowledge, attitudes and behavioral practices toward ADHD children. Methods: A quasi-experimental, quantitative, (pre/ post one group) research design was used with 57 elementary teachers recruited conveniently from 4 schools located in Jeddah city and affiliated to Ministry of Education, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected by using 3 main tools which are The Knowledge Attention Deficit Disorders (KADDS) scale, The teacher attitude towards inclusion scale (TAIS), and Teacher Intervention Survey which was used to assess teachers’ perceived familiarity with interventions commonly recommended with students with ADHD. The results: Nearly half of the sample were aged between 31 -40 years with total mean score (35.86±7.09) and (80.0%) of them had bachelor’s degree in general education and there is a significant difference between pre knowledge assessment (11.8±5.9) compared with post (18.2±4.9) with highly significant difference t=-6.81 at P.V (0.000) as well the difference between pre and post behavioral practices of studied sample at p= 0.000. Conclusion: the present study suggests that a brief professional educational intervention can be utilized to greatly increase teachers’ ADHD knowledge, providing a cost-effective, practical solution to address the well-evidenced gap in teachers’ training and knowledge about the disorder. Whereas improving attitudes was minor with no significant difference between pre/post assessment. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate ADHD training programs into teacher-training curricula either in elementary special or general education, with regular reinforcement through in-service training.
Keywords
ADHD, Behaviors Strategy, KADDS, Program, Teacher Proficiency Skills
To cite this article
Amal Ibrahim Khalil, Faten Ahmed Alshareef, Halemah Ghoneem Alshumrani, Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavioural Practice of Elementary Teacher of ADHD Children: Impact of an Educational Intervention, American Journal of Nursing Science. Special Issue: Disability from Different Nursing Perspectives. Vol. 8, No. 6, 2019, pp. 329-341. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.20190806.17
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Ali Munshi AM. Knowledge and Misperceptions towards diagnosis and management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among Primary School and kindergarten female teachers in Al-Rusaifah district, Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2014; 3: 434-441.
[2]
Homidi, M., Obaidat, Y., & Hamaidi, D.. Prevalence of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Students in Jeddah city, KSA. (2013) Retrieved from http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life1003/044_19518life1003_280_285.pdf.
[3]
Saad, S., & Lindsay, G. Preschool children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in inclusive settings: Challenging but not problematic. Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, (2010).18 (1), 115-132.
[4]
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5 ed.). 2013; Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
[5]
S Mehta,,,, et al, Peer-Mediated Multimodal Intervention Program for the Treatment of Children with ADHD in India: One-Year Follow-upISRN Pediatr, 2012; 419168-419168.
[6]
Alamri S., Students With ADHD-Related Behaviors: Saudi Mainstream Teachers’ Knowledge And Attitude Towards Inclusion. published thesis of PhD, Office of Education Research.2014; Faculty of Education Queensland University of Technology.
[7]
Khademi, M; Rajeziesfahani, S; Noorbakhsh, S; Panaghi, L; Ashtiani, M; Razjouyan, K & Salamatbakhsh, N. Knowledge and Attitude of Primary School Teachers in Tehran/Iran towards ADHD and SLD, Global Journal of Health Science.2016; Vol. 8, No. (12): 141-149.
[8]
Alkahtani, K.. Teachers’ Knowledge and Misconceptions of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Psychology, 2013; 04 (12), 963-969. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.412139.
[9]
Salamatbakhsh, N., Khademi, M., Noorbakhsh, S., Rajeziesfahani, S., Davari-Ashtiani, R., & Razjouyan, KInvestigating the Knowledge and Attitude of Primary School Teachers in Tehran towards Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Learning Disorders and Relation to Teacher’s Characteristics. Scientific Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine,. 2016; 5 (3), Under Press.
[10]
Peters, G.-J. Y.). The alpha and the omega of scale reliability and validity: Why and how to abandon Cronbach’s alpha and the route towards more comprehensive assessment of scale quality. European Health Psychologist, 2014; 16 (2), 56-69.
[11]
Lasisi, D., Ani, C., Lasebikan, V., Sheikh, L., & Omigbodun, O. Effect of attention-deficit–hyperactivity-disorder training program on the knowledge and attitudes of primary school teachers in Kaduna, North West Nigeria. Child And Adolescent Psychiatry And Mental Health, 2017; 11 (1). doi: 10.1186/s13034-017-0153-8.
[12]
Shehata, A., Mahrous Abd El Aziz, E., Abd El latif Farrag, E. and Hassan Hassan, Z. Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Program on Knowledge, Attitude and Management Strategies Among Teachers of Primary School toward Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders. (2016); [online] Pdfs. semantic scholar. org. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8c7c/1e3f849fd60c92968a38c8127ba3dc23c50a.pdf [Accessed 5 May 2019].
[13]
Alhraiwil, N., Ali, A., Househ, M., Al-Shehri, A. and El-mutually, A. Systematic review of the epidemiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Arab countries. (2015); [online] Available at: https:// ww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4727626/[Accessed 3 Feb. 2019].
[14]
School Interventions - CHADD. (2019). Retrieved from https://chadd.org/for-parents/school-interventions/
[15]
Sciutto, M. J., Terjesen, M. D., & Frank, A. S. B. Teachers' knowledge and misperceptions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, (2000); 37 (2), 115-122. doi: 10.1002/ (sici) 1520- 6807 (200003) 37: 2<115:: aid-pits3>3.0.co; 2-5
[16]
Perold, M., Louw, C., & Kleynhans, S.. Primary school teachers’ knowledge and misperceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). South African Journal of Education, 2010; 30 (3), 0-0.
[17]
AUSTERMAN, J. ADHD and behavioral disorders: Assessment, management, and an update from DSM-5, 2015; VOLUME 82. Retrieved from https://mdedge-files-live.s3.us-east-2.amazonaws.com/files/s3fs-public/issues/articles/Austerman_ADHD.pdf.
[18]
Sciutto, M. J., & Eisenberg, M.. Evaluating the evidence for and against the over diagnosis of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 2007; 1, 106-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054707300094
[19]
Soodak, L. C., Podell, D. M., & Lehman, R. Teacher, student, and school attributes as predictors of teachers’ responses to inclusion. The Journal of Special Education, 1998; 31 (4), 480-490.
[20]
Matlock, E. A. Differences in elementary school teachers’ instructional environment and perceived competence toward children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as a function of attitudes toward control versus autonomy, training, and experience.1999; Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University, OK.
[21]
Small, S. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: General education elementary school teachers' knowledge, training, and ratings of acceptability of interventions. 2003; University of South Florida. Retrieved from http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2478&context=etd
[22]
Kline, R. B. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling.2010; (3 ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
[23]
Khalil A., and Abdelwahab S. Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention on Improving Elementary School Teachers’ ADHD Knowledge, Attitudes and Self-Efficacy. Saudi Journal of Nursing and Health Care; 2019; vol. 2 issue (4): 152-167
[24]
Latouche1 A., and Gascoigne M., In-Service Training for Increasing Teachers’ ADHD Knowledge and Self-Efficacy. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2017; pp. 1-12 sagepub.com/journals Permissions. nav DOI: 10.1177/1087054717707045 journals.sagepub.com/home/jad
[25]
Wienen, A., Batstra, L., Thoutenhoofd, E., de Jonge, P., & Bos, E. Teachers’ perceptions of behavioral problems in Dutch primary education pupils: The role of relative age. PLOS ONE, 2018; 13 (10), e0204718. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204718.
[26]
Veenman, B., Luman, M., & Oosterlaan, J. Further Insight into the Effectiveness of a Behavioral Teacher Program Targeting ADHD Symptoms Using Autography, Classroom Observations and Peer Ratings. Frontiers In Psychology, 8. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01157.
[27]
White, S., Sukhodolsky, D., Rains, A., McGuire, J. and Scahill, L. Elementary School Teachers’ Knowledge of Tourette Syndrome, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, & Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects of Teacher Training.2010; [online] Research gate. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226497217_Elementary_School_Teachers'_Knowledge_of_Tourette_Syndrome_Obsessive-Compulsive_Disorder_Attention-DeficitHyperactivity_Disorder_Effects_of_Teacher_Training [Accessed 5 May 2019].
[28]
Yoo, I. Y., Ra, J., Oh, E., & Kim, M. Knowledge and attitude to Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder in Korean preschool teachers. Journal of Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing, 2009; 15 (4), 383-391.
[29]
Nur, N., & Kavakci, O. Elementary school teachers' knowledge and attitudes related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Health MED, 2010; 2 (4), 350-355.
[30]
Sarraf N., S. A comparative study of the effectiveness of nonattendance and workshop education of primary school teachers on their knowledge, attitude and function towards ADHD students in Isfahan in 2010. [online] PubMed Central (PMC). 2019; Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430045/ [Accessed 5 May 2019].
[31]
Syed, E. and Hussein, S. Increase in Teachers’ Knowledge About ADHD After a Week-Long Training Program: A Pilot Study - Ehsan Allah Syed, Sajida Abdul Hussein, 2019; [online] SAGE Journals. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1087054708329972 [Accessed 5 May 2019].
[32]
Mirza N, Nisar N, Ikram Z. Knowledge, attitude & practices towards attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among private elementary school teachers of Karachi, Pakistan. J Dow Uni Health Sci 2017; 11 (1): 11-17.
[33]
Rodrigo MD, Perera D, Eranga VP, Williams SS, Kuruppuarachchi KA. The knowledge and attitude of primary school teachers in Sri Lanka towards childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Ceylon medical journal. 2011; 56: 51.
[34]
Alabd AM, Mesbah SK, Alboliteeh M. Effect of Educational Program on Elementary School Teachers‟ Knowledge, Attitude, and Classroom Management Techniques Regards Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. International Journal of Studies in Nursing. Jul 2018; 30; 3 (3): 159.
[35]
Legato, L. J. Effects of teacher factors on expectations of students with ADHD (College of Liberal Arts & Social Sciences Theses and Dissertations, Paper 66) 2011;. Retrieved from http://via.library.depaul.edu/etd/66.
[36]
Avramidis, E., & Norwich, B. Teachers' attitudes toward integration/inclusion: A review of the literature. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 2002; 17 (2), 129-147. doi: 10.1080/08856250210129056.
[37]
Hayashi, R., & May, G. E. The effect of exposure to a professor with visible disability on students' attitudes toward disabilities. Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation, 2011; 10 (1), 36-48. doi: 10.1080/1536710X.2011.546300.
[38]
Shannon, C. D., Tansey, T. N., & Schoen, B. The effect of contact, context, and social power on undergraduate attitudes toward persons with disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 2009; 75 (4), 11-18.
[39]
Alothman, S. Children with AD/HD.. Solutions are not implemented! AL Riyadh Newspaper. 2011a;. Retrieved from http://www.alriyadh.com/2011/01/29/article599204.html
[40]
Weisel, A., & Dror, O. School climate, sense of efficacy and Israeli teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion of students with special needs. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 2006; 1 (2), 157-174. doi: 10.1177/1746197906064677.
[41]
Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, 1. Belief attitude, intention, and behavior.- an introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: 1975; Addison-Wesley.
[42]
Bandura, A. (1994). Self‐efficacy. In V. S. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted from: H. Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186