Pulmonary Embolism: A Literature Review
American Journal of Nursing Science
Volume 7, Issue 3-1, June 2018, Pages: 57-61
Received: Nov. 6, 2017; Accepted: Nov. 8, 2017; Published: Nov. 24, 2017
Views 1380      Downloads 110
Kourkouta Lambrini, Department of Nursing, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Koukourikos Konstantinos, Department of Nursing, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Iliadis Christos, Department of Nursing, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Ouzounakis Petros, General Hospital of Alexandroupoli, Alexandroupoli, Greece
Tsaloglidou Areti, Department of Nursing, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Article Tools
Follow on us
Pulmonary embolism is the blockage of a branch of the pulmonary artery by a substance that has traveled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream. The majority of pulmonary embolisms are caused by venous thromboembolism but in some cases it may also come from other sources (fat, injuries, orthopedic surgeries or amniotic fluid during childbirth). The aim of this retrospective study is to highlight some important information about the pulmonary embolism. Extensive review of the recent literature was conducted in electronic database Medline and via the link of the Greek Association of Academic Libraries (HEAL-Link). Pulmonary embolism can be immediately a life threatening situation. Cause of the disease is the blockage of an artery in the lungs usually by a clot (clogging). Pulmonary embolism is divided into (a) small and medium size (b) multiple pulmonary emboli, and (c) massive pulmonary embolism. There are several factors that affect the occurrence of pulmonary embolism such as age over 40 years, major surgery, fractures, particularly those of the basin and prolonged bed stay (more than five days). The treatment of pulmonary embolism and its diagnosis should be direct because many times even today people lose their lives, despite the tremendous development of diagnostic tools.
Pulmonary Embolism, Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic Tests, Treatment
To cite this article
Kourkouta Lambrini, Koukourikos Konstantinos, Iliadis Christos, Ouzounakis Petros, Tsaloglidou Areti, Pulmonary Embolism: A Literature Review, American Journal of Nursing Science. Special Issue:Nursing Education and Research. Vol. 7, No. 3-1, 2018, pp. 57-61. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.s.2018070301.19
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Patakas D. Otorhinolaryngology. Publishing University Studio Press, Thessaloniki, 2006.
Girtovitis F. Prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disease in thrombophilic patients. Haema 2014, 5(1): 41-53.
Tsakali A., Kefalopoyloy Z., Papadoulas S., Argitis B., Liamis A., Tsolakis I. Deep venous thrombosis: etiology, prophylaxis, treatment. Greek Vascular Surgery 2007, 8(9): 251-258.
“Pulmonary Embolism” July 23 2017. www.iatrikionline.gr
DeLuca E., Watson A., Osborn K. Pulmonary Embolism [In] Osborn K., Wraa C., Watson A. Pathological and Surgical Nursing. Publishing Pachalidis, 2012.
Lemone P., Burke K. Pathological and Surgical Nursing. Volume 3, Publishing Lagos, 2007.
Mabrouk B., Anis C., Hassen D., Leila A., Daoud S., Hichem K., Mohamed S., Hatem K., Mounir B. Pulmonary thromboembolism: incidence, physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Tunis Med 2015, 92(7):435-47.
Akiros D. Handbook of cardiology nursing. Medical Publications Parisianow, 2009.
Stagaki E., Apostolakis S., Karakontaki F., Tsaramirsi M., Poluchronopoulos B., Konstantinidis S. Pulmonary Thromboembolic Disease. Hellenic Cardiological Review 2012, 53: 159-173.
Mandala E., Lafaras X. Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolic disease in hospitalized patients - Risk stratification. Hellenic Medicine 2010, 76(1):9-18.
Tsilimidos G., Marinis A. Review of the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach of Pulmonary Embolism. Epistimonika Xronika 2013, 18(2):88-91.
Kapetaniou A. Pulmonary embolism-Diagnosis and treatment. Medical Analects 2011, (3)9:390-394.
European Society of Cardiology. (2014). 2014 ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Golbhaber S. Pulmonary embolism, in: Cardiology-Diagnosis and Treatment. Publishing Pachalidis, 2009.
Mismetti P., Bertoletti L. Initial management of venous thromboembolism. Rev Prat 2015, 65(2):193-8.
Banovac F., Buckley D., Kuo W., Lough D., Martin L., Millward S., Clark W., Kundu S. Reporting Standards for Endovascular Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010, 21:44–53.
Schellhaaß Α., Walther Α., Konstantinides S., Böttiger B. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Embolism. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010, 107(34–35): 589–95.
Papalampros Th. Karmaniolas K. Postoperative venous thrombosis. Archia Ellinikis Iatrikis 2000, 17(3): 273-284.
Meyer G., Couturaud F. Long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism. Rev Prat 2015, 65(2):208-13.
KearonC., Akl E., Comerota A., Prandoni P., Bounameaux H., Goldhaber S. Z., Nelson M. E., Wells P. S., Gould M. K., Dentali F., Crowther M., Kahn S.R. Antithrombotic Therapy for VTE Disease Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012, 141(2):419–494.
Piovella F., Iosub DI. Acute pulmonary embolism: risk assessment, risk stratification and treatment options. Clin Respir J 2015, 2(3):35-76.
Zacharas I., Mpalanos D. Pulmonary Embolism. Topics of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care 2014, 24(29):249-252.
Wärntges S., Konstantinides SV. Progress in the management of acute pulmonary embolism. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2015, 21(5):417-24.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186