American Journal of Nursing Science
Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 96-101
Received: Jan. 14, 2015;
Accepted: Jan. 26, 2015;
Published: Mar. 5, 2015
Views 3074 Downloads 115
Kleisiaris F. Christos , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Crete, Heraklio, Greece
Plaiti E. Maria , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Crete, Heraklio, Greece
Papathanasiou V. Ioanna , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Thessaly, Larisa, Greece
Papaioannou Polina , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Crete, Heraklio, Greece
Kastrinakis Ioannis , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Crete, Heraklio, Greece
Diakantoni Sofia , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Crete, Heraklio, Greece
Fradelos Evangelos , 3rd Psychiatric Department, State Mental Hospital of Attica “Daphne”, Athens, Greece
Kourkouta Lamprini , Department of Nursing, Technological Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Introduction: Osteoporosis is a disease of bones and it has been associated with various risk factors such as female gender, advanced age and smoking habit. However, evidence has shown that the true figures between osteoporosis and smoking are conflicted. Aim: This study was aimed to screen individuals for potential risk factors related to osteoporosis and to assess whether smoking habit is associated with osteoporosis development in Primary care population aged 45 years and over. Materials and Methods: A screening program for osteoporosis was conducted in two Primary care settings in the island of Crete – Greece, during a 3-month period (April to June 2013). We studied 400 participants aged 45 years old and over for risk-factors associated with osteoporosis development using the ONE Minute Osteoporosis Risk Test. Participants were screened for to 19 risk-factors related to osteoporosis such as fracture, diagnosis of Thyroid, Alcohol Consumption and smoking responding to Yes or No. Statistically, chi square and/or Variance analysis were used for the descriptive characteristics of the study participants and the significance of association among demographic characteristics. The method of variance analysis was applied to determine associations between risk factors and demographic characteristics. Bivariate associations were described using Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). P-values≤0.05 was considered significant using the SPSS version 21.0. Results: The mean age of participants (50% males) was 61.94 ± 11.6. Males were smoked significantly more often (75.5% vs. 43%, p<0.001) than females and, current smokers both females (OR=1.12; 95%CI: 0.25-1.99, p=0.012) and, males (OR=0.85; 95%CI: 0.10-1.59, p=0.027) were significantly more likely to report an increased number of risk-factors for osteoporosis compared to never smokers. We also found that obese participants were less likely to report an increased number of risk-factors (OR=-1.87; 95%CI: -3.54, -0.20, p=0.029) compared to reference category suggesting that obesity was a protective factor for osteoporosis, but this association was significant only for males. Conclusion: Although a number of risk-factors did not differ among non-smokers, former and current smokers, current smokers had a greater likelihood of reporting a number of risk-factors related to osteoporosis, suggesting that smoking is an important risk factor for osteoporosis development.
Kleisiaris F. Christos ,
Plaiti E. Maria ,
Papathanasiou V. Ioanna ,
Papaioannou Polina ,
Kastrinakis Ioannis ,
Diakantoni Sofia ,
Fradelos Evangelos ,
Kourkouta Lamprini ,
Smoking is Associated with Osteoporosis Development in Primary Care Population, American Journal of Nursing Science. Special Issue: Mental Health Care: Aspects, Challenges and Perspectives.
Vol. 4, No. 2-1,
2015, pp. 96-101.
International Osteoporosis Foundation. OSTEOPOROSIS & MUSKULOSKELETAL DISORDERS- WHAT IS OSTEOPOROSIS? [Assessed; Dec 5, 2014]. Available from: http://www.iofbonehealth.org/what-is-osteoporosis
International Osteoporosis Foundation. OSTEOPOROSIS & MUSKULOSKELETAL DISORDERS- WHAT IS OSTEOPOROSIS?- Epidemiology; [Assessed; Dec 5, 2014]. Available from: http://www.iofbonehealth.org/epidemiology
International Osteoporosis Foundation. DATA & PUBLICATIONS – Facts and Statistics; [Assessed; Dec 5, 2014]. Available from: http://www.iofbonehealth.org/facts-statistics
Lane JM, Serota AC, Raphael B: Osteoporosis: Differences and Similarities in Male and Female Patients. Orthop Clin North Am 2006; 37 (4):4601–609.
Tuck SP, Datta HK. Osteoporosis in the aging male: treatment options. Clin Interv Aging 2007; 2(4):521-36.
Harrison RA, Siminoski K, Vethanayagam D, Mayumdar SR. Osteoporosis-Related Kyphosis and Impairments in Pulmonary Function: A Systematic Review.. J Bone Mine Res, 2007; 22(3):447–457.
Curtis JR, Arora T, Donaldson M, Alarcon GS, Callahan LF, Moreland LW, SL Bridges Jr, Mikuls TR. Skeletal Health among African Americans with Recent Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 61(10):1379–1386.
NATIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS FOUNDATION. Learn about Osteoporosis- Bone Health Basics: Get the Facts- Diseases and Conditions that May Cause Bone Loss; [Assessed; Dec 5, 2014]. Available: http://nof.org/articles/5
World Health Organization (Ed.). Prevention and management of osteoporosis: report of a WHO scientific group. Geneva 2003.
International Osteoporosis Foundation. OSTEOPOROSIS & MUSKULOSKELETAL DISORDERS-WHO’S AT RISK? [Assessed; Dec 5, 2014]. Available from: http://www.iofbonehealth.org/whos-risk
Eurobarometer S. Attitudes of Europeans towards tobacco 2007; TNS Opinion Social.
International Osteoporosis Foundation. OSTEOPOROSIS AND MUSCULOSKE-LETAL DISORDERS- Osteoporosis - Who’s at Risk- ONE-MINUTE OSTEOPOROSIS RISK TEST, [Assessed; Aug 22, 2014]. Available from: http://www.iofbonehealth.org/iof-one-minute-osteoporosis-risk-test .
Global Database on Body Mass Index. World Health Organization 2006; Assessed; July 27, 2012.
Ill PO, Alexandre C. Tobacco as risk factor of osteoporosis, myth or reality? Rev Rhum Ed Fr 1993; 60(4):280-286.
Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, De Laet C, Eisman JA, Fujiwara S, Kroger H, McCloskey EV, Mellstrom D, Melton LJ, Pols H, Reeve J, Silman A, Tenenhouse A. Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 2005; 16(2):55-162.
Law MR, Hackshaw AK. A meta-analysis of cigarette smoking, bone mineral density and risk of hip fracture: recognition of a major effect. BMJ 1997; 315(7112):841-846.
De Laet C, Kanis JA, Odén A, Johanson H, Johnell O, Delmas P, Eisman JA,Kroger H, Fujiwara S, Garnero P, McCloskey EV, Mellstrom D, Melton LJ,Meunier PJ, Pols HA, Reeve J, Silman A, Tenenhouse A. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 2005; (11):1330-1338.
Migliaccio S, Greco EA, Fornari R, Donini LM, Lenzi A. Is obesity in women protective against osteoporosis? Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2011; 4:273-282.
Asomaning K, Bertone-Johnson ER, Nasca PC, Hooven F, Pekow PS. The association between body mass index and osteoporosis in patients referred for a bone mineral density examination. J Womens Health 2006; 15(9):1028-1034.
Reginster JY, Burlet N. Osteoporosis: A still increasing prevalence. Bone 2006; 38:4–9.
Mac Laughlin EJ, Sleeper RB, Mc Natty D, Raehl CL. Management of age-related osteoporosis and prevention of associated fractures. Ther Clin Risk Manag, 2006; 2(3):281.
NATIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS FOUNDATION. Learn about osteoporosis- Learn about Osteoporosis- Bone Health Basics: Get the Facts- Are You at Risk? [Assessed; Dec 9, 2014]. Available from: http://nof.org/articles/2
Hernlund E, Svedbom A, Ivergard M, Compston J, Cooper C, Stenmark J, McCloskey EV, Jönsson B, Kanis JA. Osteoporosis in the European Union: medical management, epidemiology and economic burden. A report prepared in collaboration with the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industry Associations (EFPIA). Arch Osteoporos 2013; 8:136.
Veeresha KL, Gupta P. Osteoporosis: A silent oral health deterrent. Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene 2013;5(6):51-54.
NATIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS FOUNDATION. Learn about Osteoporosis-Detecting Osteoporosis-Just for men [Assessed; Dec 10, 2014]. Available from: http://nof.org/articles/236