Biochemical and Dietary Indicators among Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians: Findings from a Cross Sectional Study in Rural Bangladesh
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2013, Pages: 130-136
Received: May 5, 2013; Published: May 20, 2013
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Authors
Fahmida Dil Farzana, Centre for Nutrition and Food Security, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shahnawaz Ahmed, Centre for Nutrition and Food Security, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Farzana Ferdous, Centre for Nutrition and Food Security, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Lana Vanderlee, School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
Soroar Hossain Khan, Centre for Nutrition and Food Security, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Anjan Kumar Roy, Centre for Vaccine Science, Centre for Nutrition and Food Security, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Centre for Nutrition and Food Security, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Centre for Nutrition and Food Security, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Sumon Kumar Das, Centre for Nutrition and Food Security, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
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Abstract
Well-planned vegetarian diet provides numerous health benefits and is appropriate for all stages of life cycle. On the other hand, vegetarians often suffer from lower level or are deficient with different micro as well as macro nutrients. This ultimately led the study to determine and compare dietary intake and biochemical concentration of macro and micronutrients of vegetarian and non-vegetarian individuals. This cross sectional study was conducted during April-September 2010. Sixty six vegetarian and 66 non-vegetarian healthy adult aged 40 years and above were enrolled from the Demographic Surveillance System area of Mirzapur sub-district under Tangail district of rural Bangladesh. Five milliliters (5.0 ml) of venous blood was collected for the biochemical analysis. Dietary assessment involved 24-hour food recall method. This study revealed that, vegetarians had similar BMI compared to non-vegetarians. Biochemical analysis unveiled mean level of folic acid to be significantly higher (23.1±12.7 vs. 16.9±8.8, p=0.002) and mean level of vitamin B12 (134.9±46.2 vs. 217.6±95.6, p<0.001) to be significantly lower in vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians. From dietary history, mean calorie intake (1671.9±788.5 kcal vs. 1908.9±574.5 kcal, p=0.013) and macronutrient (median value; per day) consumption was found lower [carbohydrate (334.5 gm vs. 385.1 gm, p=0.048); protein (34.9 gm vs. 53.9 gm, p<0.001); fat (7.7 gm vs. 12.7 gm, p=0.020)] in non-vegetarian group compared to vegetarian individuals. In multivariate analysis of biochemical indicators, individuals being vegetarian impacted on decreased level of vitamin B12 (74.02 pmol/L) and increased level of folic acid (6.34 nmol/L). Multivariate analysis of dietary indicators revealed, individuals being vegetarian has an impact on decreased intake of protein (7.85 gm) and increased intake of log transformed β-carotene (0.61 mcg). These results suggest that, vegetarians in rural Bangladesh have lower intake of protein and micronutrients specially vitamin B 12; but increased intake of folic acid and β-carotene. Assessment of these outcomes affirms further study
Keywords
Bangladesh, Calorie, Folic Acid, Non-Vegetarian, Vegetarian, Vitamin B-12
To cite this article
Fahmida Dil Farzana, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Farzana Ferdous, Lana Vanderlee, Soroar Hossain Khan, Anjan Kumar Roy, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Sumon Kumar Das, Biochemical and Dietary Indicators among Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians: Findings from a Cross Sectional Study in Rural Bangladesh, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2013, pp. 130-136. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20130203.16
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