International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2013, Pages: 254-260
Received: Aug. 11, 2013;
Published: Sep. 20, 2013
Views 2546 Downloads 233
Malomo, Olu., College of Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology,Ota, Nigeria
Alamu, E. A., College of Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology,Ota, Nigeria
Oluwajoba, S. O., College of Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology,Ota, Nigeria
This study was carried out to evaluate protein quality of maize and cowpea grains and the effect of sprouting on this quality. Both grains were germinated for up to 5 days and the protein qualities were evaluated chemically. The use of chemical evaluation is to circumvent the use of animal studies to monitor protein qualities in biological systems which are not perfect measures. The chemical parameters employed were chemical score, essential amino acid index (EAAI), biological value and protein requirement index. The result showed no appreciable change in the parameters tested after germination except for consistent amino acid lysine being limiting as the germination time progresses.This study had shown that contrary to expectations of improvement in protein quality during germination, there was no significant changes even at 5% probability level.
Alamu, E. A.,
Oluwajoba, S. O.,
Chemical Evaluation of Protein Quality of Sprouted Maize and Cowpea, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2013, pp. 254-260.
ALTSCHUL, A. M., YATSU L. Y., ORY R. L. and ENGLEMAN E. M. (1966). Seed
Proteins. Ann. Rev. physiol. 17: 113.
BAU, H. M. and DERBY G. (1979). Germinated soy protein products: chemical
and nutritional Evaluation. J. Am. Oil chem.. Sci. 56: 160.
CHEN, L. H. and THACKER R. (1978). Germination and nitrogenous constituents of
pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) J. Food Sci. 43. 1884.
CUNNINGGHAM, S. D., CARTER C. M. and MATTIL K. F. (1978). Effect of germination
on cotton seed protein. J. Food Sci. 43: 102.
DESIKACHAR, H. S. R. and DE S. S. (1950). The trypsin inhibitor and availability of
cystine and methionine in raw and germinated soya beans. Biochem Biophys. Acta. 5: 285.
EGGUM, B. D. (1968). Evaluation of protein quality and the development of
screening techniques. Panel on new approach
EVERSON, G. J., STEENBOCK M. and CEDERQUIST M. (1944). The effect of germination
on the age of maturity, and variety upon the nutritive value of soybean protein. J. Nutr. 27: 225.
FAO/WHO (1965). Expert group Joint report : WHO protein requirement. WHO
Technical rept. Ser. No. 301. WHO, Geneva.
FORDHAM, J. R., WELLS C. E. and CHEN L. H. (1975). Sprouting of seeds and
nutrients composition of seeds and sprouts.
FRENCH, D. (1954). The raffinose family of oligosaccharides. Adv. Carbohyd. Chem.. 9: 149.
HAMAD, A. M. and FIELDS M. L. (1970). Evaluation of the protein quality and
available lysine of germinated and fermented cereals. 44: 456.
HAMILTON, M. J. and VANDERSTOEP J. (1979). Germination and nutrient composition
of alfalfa seeds. J. Food Sci. 44: 443.
HARRISON, J. E. (1980). The effects of various growth conditions on the
nutritive composition of alfalfa sprouts.
HSU, D. LEUNG H. K., FINNEY P. L. and MORAD M. M. (1980). Effect of germination
on nutritive value and baking properties of dry peas, lentils and faba beans. J. Food Sci. 45: 87.
JUO, P. and STOTZKY G. (1970). Changes in protein spectra of beans seed
during germination. Can. J. Bot. 48:1347.
KHAN, M. A. and GHAFOOR A. (1978). The effect of soaking, germination and cooking
on the protein quality of mash beans (Phaseoulus mungo). J. Sci. Food Agric. 29: 461.
KOLLER, D., MAYER A. M., POLJAKOFF-MAYER A. and KLEIN S. (1962). Seed
germination. Ann. Rev. Plant. Physiol. 13: 437.
KUMAR, G. K. and VENKATORAM L. V. (1975). Changes in reserve proteins of
cowpea, chickpea and green-gram during germination: Physico chemical studies. J. Food Sci. and Technol. 12: 292.
KYLEN, A. M. and MCCREEDY R. M. (1975). Nutrients in seeds and sprouts of
alfalfa, lentils, mung beans and soy beans . J. Food Sci. 40: 1008.
MILLER, D. S. and PAYNE P. R. (1959). A ballistic bomb caloricmeter. Brit. J. Nutr.
OSER, B. L. (1959). An integrated essential amino acid index for predicting the
biological value of proteins. In: Protein and amino acid nutrition (ed. A. A. Albanese). and legumes. Nutr. Report Int. 11:313.
PALMER, R., McINTOSH A. and PUSZTAI A. (1973). The nutritional evaluation of
kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The effect of nutritional value of sed germination and changes in trypsin nhibitor content.J. Sci. Food Agric. 24: 937.
SAID, A. K. and HEGSTED D. M. (1969). Evaluation of dietary protein quality in
adult rats. J. Nutr. 99: 474
SAUNDERS, R. M., CONNOR M. A., BOOTH A. I. N., BRICKOFF E. M. and KOHLER G. O.
(1973). Measurement of digestibility of alfalfa protein concentrates by vivo and vitro methods. J. Nutr. 103: 530.
SHEFFENER, A. L., ECKFELDT G. A. and SPECTOR H. (1956). The pepsin digest
residue (PDR) amino acid index of net protein utilization. J. Nutr. 60: 105.
SUBBULAKSHMI, G., KUMAR G. K. and VENKATARAMAN L. V. (1976). Effect
of germination on the carbohydrates, proteins, trypsin inhibitor, amylase inhibitor and haemaglitinin in horse gram and moth bean. Nutr. Report Int. 13: 19.
VENKATARAMAN, L. V., JAYA T. V. and KRISHNAMARTHY K. S. (1976). Effect
of germination on the biological value, digestibility coefficient and net protein utilization of some legume proteins. Nutr. Dietet. 15: 9.
WALKER, A. F. (1981). The application of in vitro methods to the estimation of
protein quality of leaf protein concentrates. PhD Thesis, University of Reading, Reading, England.
WANG, Y. D. and FIELDS M. L. (1978). Germination of corn and sorghum in the home to
improve nutritional value. J. Food. Sci. 43: 1113.