Microencapsulation of Natural Food Colourants
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 145-156
Received: Mar. 17, 2014; Accepted: Apr. 25, 2014; Published: Apr. 30, 2014
Views 4020      Downloads 830
Authors
Gülay Özkan, Food Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey
Seda Ersus Bilek, Food Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Carotenoids, anthocyanins, and chlorophylls are used as natural food colourants in the food industry. Microencapsulation is a technology that is used for the protection, stabilization, and the slow release of core materials. There are several techniques and wall materials that are available for microencapsulation of natural food colourants to overcome their instability, solubility, and handling problems. The objective of this paper is to describe techniques for preparation of microcapsulated food colourants and to provide a literature review of utilizable wall materials for natural colourants. Additionally, process conditions for given microencapsulation techniques are also summarized.
Keywords
Microencapsulation, Natural Food Colourant, Wall Material, Carotenoid, Anthocyanin, Chlorophyll
To cite this article
Gülay Özkan, Seda Ersus Bilek, Microencapsulation of Natural Food Colourants, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2014, pp. 145-156. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140303.13
References
[1]
Maskan M (2001) Kinetics of colour changes of kiwifruits during hot air a microwave drying. Journal of Food Engineering 48:169-175
[2]
Giusti MM (1996) Radish anthocyanin extract as a natural red colorant for maraschino cherries. Journal of food science 61(4):688-694
[3]
Macrae R, Robinson R, Sadler M (1993) Encyclopaedia of Food Science, Food Technology and Nutrition. Academic Press, San Diego
[4]
Downham A, Collins P (2000) Colouring our foods in the last and next millennium. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 35:5-22
[5]
Ni Y, Gong X (1997) Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination. Analytica Chimica Acta 354:163-171
[6]
Francis FJ (1987) Lesser-known food colorants. Food Technology 41:62-68
[7]
Ilker R (1987) In-vitro pigment production: an alternative to color synthesis. Food Technology 41:70-72
[8]
Krinsky N (1993) Actions of carotenoids in biological systems. Annual Review of Nutrition 13:561–589
[9]
Mayne S (1996) β-carotene, carotenoids, and disease prevention in humans. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal 10:690-701
[10]
Olson J (1999) Carotenoids, Shils M, Olson J, Shike M, Ross Z. In. Modern Nutrition in Health. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins 525-541
[11]
Rao A, Honglei S (2002) Effect of low dose lycopene intake on lycopene bioavailability and oxidative stress. Nutrition Research 22:1125-1131
[12]
Young A, Lowe G (2001) Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of carotenoids. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 385:20-27
[13]
Ziegler RG, Mayne ST, Swanson CA (1996) Nutrition and lung cancer. Cancer Causes Control 7:157-177
[14]
Laos K, Lougas T, Mandmets A, Vokk R (2007) Encapsulation of β-carotene from sea buckthorn [Hippophaë rhamnoides L.] juice in furcellaran beads. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 8:395-398
[15]
Doughall DK, Baker D, Gakh E, Redus M, Whittemore N (1998) Anthocyanins from wild carrot suspension cultures acylated with supplied carboxylic acids. Carbohydrate Research 310:177-189
[16]
Brouillard R (1982) Chemical structure of anthocyanins, Markasis P. Anthocyanins as food colors. Academic Press, London 1-40
[17]
Han X, Shen T, Lou H (2007) Dietary polyphenols and their biological significance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 8:950-988
[18]
Ramos S (2008) Cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy: dietary polyphenols and signalling pathways. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 51:507-526
[19]
Soobrattee M, Bahorun T, Aruom O (2006) Chemopreventive actions of polyphenolic compounds in cancer. Biofactors 27:19-35
[20]
Neto C (2007) Cranberry and blueberry: evidence for protective effects against cancer and vascular diseases. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 51:652-664
[21]
Seeram NP, Bourquin LD, Nair MG (2001) Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries. Phytomedicine 8:362-369
[22]
Bakowska M, Kucharska A, Oszmianski J (2003) The effects of heating, UV irradiation and storage on stability of anthocyanin-polyphenol copigment complex. Food Chemistry 81:349-355
[23]
Senklang P, Anprung P (2010) Optimizing enzymatic extraction of Zn-Chlorophyll derivatives from pandan leaf using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34:759-776
[24]
Humhrey A (1980) Chlorophyll. Food Chemistry 5:57-67
[25]
Shahidi F, Han XQ (1993) Encapsulation of food ingredients. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 33:501-547
[26]
Green BK, Scheicher L (1955) Pressure Sensitive Record Materials. US Patent Nu. (2), 217-507, Ncr C.
[27]
Dubey R, Shami T, Bhasker Rao K (2009) Microencapsulation technology and application. Defence Science Journal 59:82-95
[28]
Dziezak J (1988) Microencapsulation and encapsulated ingredients. Food Technology 2:36-51
[29]
Risch S (1955) Encapsulation: overview of uses and techniques. Risch S, Reineccius G. In. American Chemist's Society, Symposium Series, Washington 590: 2-7
[30]
Re M (1998) Microencapsulation by spray-drying. Dry Technology 16:1195-1236
[31]
Shekhar K, Madhu M, Pradeep B, Banji D (2010) A review on microencapsulation. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 5(2):5862
[32]
Schierle J, Bretzel W, Bühler I, Faccin N, Hess D, Steiner K (1997) Content and isomeric ratio of lycopene in food and human blood plasma. Food Chemistry 59:459-465
[33]
Yeo Y, Baek N, Park K (2001) Microencapsulation Methods for Delivery of Protein Drugs. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 6:213-230
[34]
Jimenez M, Garcia H, Beristain C (2004) Spray-drying microencapsulation and oxidative stability of conjugated linoleic acid. European Food Research and Technology 219:588-592
[35]
Rodriguez-Huezo M, Pedroza-Islas R, Prado-Barragan L, Beristain C, Vernon-Carter E (2004) Microencapsulation by spray drying of multiple emulsions containing carotenoids. Journal of Food Science 69:351-359
[36]
Gibbs B, Kermasha S, Alli I, Mulligan C (1999) Encapsulation in the food industry: a review. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 41:1521-1527
[37]
Nesterenko A, Alric I, Silvestre F, Durrieu V (2013) Vegetable proteins in microencapsulation: A review of recent interventions and their effectiveness. Industrial Crops and Products 42:469-479
[38]
Desai K, Park H (2005) Recent developments in microencapsulation of food ingredients. Drying Techology 23:1361-1394
[39]
Bodmeier R, Chen H (1988) Preparation of biodegradable polylactide microparticles using a spray-drying technique. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics 40:754-757
[40]
Faldt P, Bergenstahl B (1995) Fat encapsulation in spray-dried food powders. Journal of American Oil Chemists' Society 72:171-176
[41]
Lin C, Lin S, Hwang L (1995) Microencapsulation of squid oil with hydrophilic macromolecules for oxidative and thermal stabilization. Journal of Food Science 60:36-39
[42]
Kim Y, Morr C (1996) Microencapsulation properties of gum arabic and several food proteins: spray-dried orange oil emulsion particles. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44:1314-1320
[43]
Hogan S, McNamee B, O'Riordan E, O'Sullivan M (2001) Microencapsulation properties of sodium caseinate. Journal of Agriculturel and Food Chemistry 49:1934-1938
[44]
Gharsallaoui A, Roudant G, Chambin O, Voilley A, Saurel R (2007) Applications of spray-drying in microencapsulation of food ingredients: a review. Food Research International 40:1107-1121
[45]
Karel M, Langer R (1988) Controlled release of food additives. Risc S, Reineccius G. In; Flavour Encapsulation. American Chemical Society, Washington 177-191
[46]
Oetjen G, Haseley P (2004) Freeze-Drying. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co: Weinheim
[47]
Desorby S, Netto F, Labuza T (1997) Comparison of spray-drying, drum-drying and freeze-drying for B-carotene encapsulation and preservation. Journal of Food Science 62:1158-1162
[48]
Jacquot M, Pernetti M (2003) Spray coating and drying processes. Nedovic U, Willaert R (2003) In; Cell Immobilization Biotechnology. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Netherlands 343-356
[49]
Barbosa-Canovas G, Vega-Mercado H (1996) Dehydratation of Foods. Chaman & Hall, New York
[50]
Gouin S (2004) Microencapsulation: industrial appraisal of existing technologies and trends. Trends of Food Science and Technology 15:330-347
[51]
Nihant N, Grandfils C, Jerome R, Teyssie P (1995) Microencapsulation by coacervation of poly [lactide-co-glycolide] IV. Effect of the processing parameters on coacervation and encapsulation. Journal of Controlled Release 35(2-3):117-125
[52]
Burgess D, Hickey A (1994) Microsphere technology and applications. Swarbrick J, Boylan J. Ancyclopedia of Pharmacuetical Technology. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA 1-29
[53]
Wilson N, Shah N (2007) Microencapsulation of vitamins. ASEAN Food Journal 14:1-14
[54]
Anon (2014) http://www.rtdodge.com/RTD-coacervation.html (14.01.2014)
[55]
Friberg S, Larsson K, Sjoblom J (2004) Food emulsions. Marcel Dekker, New York (4)
[56]
Benichou A, Aserin A, Garti N (2004) Double emulsions stabilized with hybrids of natural polymers for entrapment and slow release of active matters. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 108-109, 29-41
[57]
Van Der Graaf S, Schroen C, Boom R (2005) Preparation of double emulsions by membrane emulsification-a review. Journal of Membrane Science 251:7-15
[58]
Betz M, Kulozik U (2011) Microencapsulation of bioactive bilberry anthocyanins by means of whey protein gels. Procedia Food Science 1:2047-2056
[59]
Rocha-Selmi G, Bozza F, Thomazini M, Bolini H, Fávaro-Trindade C (2013) Microencapsulation of aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation to provide protection and prolong sweetness. Food Chemistry 139:72-78
[60]
Lee S, Rosenberg M (2000) Preparation and some properties of water-insoluble, whey protein-based microcapsules. Journal of Microencapsulation 17(1):29-44
[61]
Mathiowitz E, Kreitz M, Brannon-Peppas L (1999) Microencapsulation. Mathiowitz E. Ancyclopedia of Controlled Delivery. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA 2:493-546
[62]
Barros F, Stringheta P (2006) Microencapsulamento de antocianinas-uma alternativa para o aumento de sua aplicabilidade como ingrediente alimenticio. Biotecnologia Ciencia e Desenvolvimento 36:18-24
[63]
Bakowska-Barczak A, Kolodziejczyk P (2011) Black currant polyphenols: their storage stability and microencapsulation. Industrial Crops and Products 34(2):1301-1309
[64]
Wagner L, Warthesen J (1995) Stability of Spray-dried encapsulated carrot carotenes. Journal of Food Science 60(5):1048–1053
[65]
Cai Y, Corke H (2000) Production and properties of spray-dried amaranthus betacyanin pigments. Journal of Food Science 65(6):1248–1252
[66]
Ersus S, Yurdagel U (2007) Microencapsulation of anthocyanin pigments of black carrot (Daucus carota L.) by spray dryer. Journal of Food Engineering 80:805-812
[67]
Silva G, Constatnt P, Figueiredo R, Moura S (2010) Formulação e estabilidade de corantes de antocianinas extraídas das cascas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria ssp.). Alimentos e Nutrição 21(3):429-436
[68]
Reineccius G (1988) Spray-drying of food flavors. Risch S, Reineccius G. Flavor encapsulation. Symposium Series, Washington, USA 55-66
[69]
Arburto L, Tavares D, Martucci E (1998) Microencapsulac¸ão de óleo essencial de laranja. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos18:45-48
[70]
Bastos D, Araujo K, Rocha-Leao M (2009) Ascorbic acid retaining using a new calcium alginate – Capsul® based edible film. Journal of Microencapsulation 26:97-103
[71]
Nagatamo S (1985) Cyclodextrins: expanding the development of their functions and applications. Chemical Economy and Engineering Review 17(7-8):28
[72]
Beristain C, Garcia H, Vernon E (1999) Mesquite gum [Propopis juliflora] maltodextrin blends as wall material for spray-dried encapsulated orange peel oil. Food Science and Technology International 5(4):353-356
[73]
Pitalua E, Jimenez M, Vernon-Carter E, Beristain C (2010) Antioxidative activity of microcapsules with beetroot juice using gum arabic as wall material. Food and Bioprocess Processing 88(2-3):253-258
[74]
Stevens C, Meriggi A, Booten K (2001) Chemical modification of inulin, a valuable renewable resource, and its industrial applications. Biomacromolecules 2:1-16
[75]
Roberfroid M (2000) Inulin-Type Fructans: Functional Food Ingredients. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida
[76]
Johnston-Banks F (1990) Gelatin. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London
[77]
Bruschi M, Cardoso M, Lucchesi M, Gremiao M (2003) Gelatin microparticles containing propolis obtained by spray-drying technique: preparation and characterization. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 264:45-55
[78]
Hugerth A, Sundelöf L (2001) The effect of polyelectrolyte counterion specificity, charge density, and conformation on polyelectrolyte–amphiphile interaction: The carrageenan/furcellaran–amitriptyline system. Biopolymers 58:186-159
[79]
Glicksman M (1984) Carrageenans. Glicksman M Food hydrocolloids. CRC Press, New York 83-113
[80]
Hwang J, Shin H (2000) Rheological properties of chitosan solutions. Korea-Australia Rheology Journal 12:175-179
[81]
Klaypradit W, Huang YW (2008) Fish oil encapsulation with chitosan using ultrasonic atomizer. LWT- Food Science and Technology 41:1133-1139
[82]
Lee AC, Hong YH (2009) Coacervate formation of alfa lactoalbumin-chitosan and betalactoglobulin–chitosan complexes. Food Research International 42:733-738
[83]
Ribeiro A, Neufeld R, Arnaud P, Chaumeil J (1999) International Journal of Pharmaceutics 187:115–123
[84]
Chávarri M, Maranón I, Ares R, Ibánez F, Marzo F, Villarán M (2010) Microencapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in alginate-chitosan capsules improves survival in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions. International Journal of Food Microbiology 142:185–189
[85]
Higuera-Ciapara I, Felix-Valenzuela L, Goycoolea F, Arguelles-Monal W (2003) Microencapsulation of astaxanthin in a chitosan matrix. Carbohydrate Polymers 56:41-45
[86]
Anjani K, Kailasapathy K, Phillips M (2007) Microencapsulation of enzymes for potential application in acceleration of cheese ripening. International Dairy Journal 17:79-86
[87]
Deladino L, Anbinder P, Navarro A, Martino M (2008) Encapsulation of natural antioxidants extracted from Ilex paraguariensis. Carbohydrate Polymers 71:126-134
[88]
Young S, Sarada X, Rosenberg M (1993) Microencapsulating properties of whey proteins. 1. Microencapsulation of anhydrous milk fat. Journal of Dairy Science 76:2868-2877
[89]
Loksuwan J (2007) Characteristics of microencapsulated b-carotene formed by spray drying with modified tapioca starch, native tapioca starch and maltodextrin. Food Hydrocolloids 21: 928-935
[90]
Spada C, Zapata Norena C, Ferreira Marczak L, Cristina Tessaro I (2012) Carbohydrate Polymers 89:1166-1173
[91]
Rocha G, Favaro-Trindade C, Ferreira Grosso C (2012) Microencapsulation of lycopene by spray drying: Characterization, stability and application of microcapsules. Food and Bioproducts Processing 90:37-42
[92]
Shu B, Yu W, Zhao Y, Liu X (2006) Study on microencapsulation of lycopene by spray-drying. Journal of Food Engineering 76:664-669
[93]
Higuera-Ciapara I, Felix-Valenzuela L, Goycoolea F, Argüelles-Monal W (2004) Microencapsulation of astaxanthin in a chitosan matrix. Carbohydrate Polymers 56:41-45
[94]
Urich K (1994) Comparative Animal Biochemistry. Springer, Germany
[95]
Sweeney JP, Marsh AC (1973) Liver storage of vitamin A in rats fed carotene stereoisomers. Journal of Nutrition 103:20-25
[96]
Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Jaren-Galán M, Garrido-Fernández J (1992) Color quality in paprika. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 40:2384-2388
[97]
Rascon MP, Beristain C, Garcia H, Salgado M (2011) Carotenoid retention and storage stability of spray-dried encapsulated paprika oleoresin using gum Arabic and Soy protein isolate as wall materials. LWT - Food Science and Technology 44:549-557
[98]
Bustos-Garza C, Yáñez-Fernández J, Barragán-Huerta B (2013) Thermal and pH stability of spray-dried encapsulated astaxanthin oleoresin from Haematococcus pluvialis using several encapsulation wall material. Food Research International 54:641-649
[99]
Barbosa A, Borsarelli C, Mercadante A (2005) Light stability of spray-dried bixin encapsulated with different edible polysaccharide preparations. Food Research International 38:989-994
[100]
Tonon R, Brabet C, Hubinger D (2010) Anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity of spray-dried açai [Euterpe oleracea Mart.] juice produced with different carrier agents. Food Research International 43:907-914
[101]
Silva I, Stringheta C, Teofilo F, Nolasco de Oliveira I (2013) Parameter optimization for spray-drying microencapsulation of jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) peel extracts using simultaneous analysis of responses. Journal of Food Engineering 117 (4): 538-544
[102]
Jimenez-Aguilar D, Ortega-Regules A, Lozada Ramirez J, Perez-Prez M, Vernon-Carter E, Welti-Chanes J (2011) Color and chemical stability of spray-dried blueberry extract using mesquite gum as wall material. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 24:889-894
[103]
Porrarud S, Pranee A (2010) Microencapsulation of Zn-chlorophyll pigment from Pandan leaf by spray drying and its characteristic. International Food Research Journal 17:1031-1042
[104]
Hendry G, Houghton J (1996) Natural colorants. Chapman & Hall, Glasgow
[105]
Stinzing F, Carle R (2008) Food Colorants. Chemical and Functional properties. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL
[106]
Saénz C, Tapia S, Chávez J, Robert P (2009) Microencapsulation by spray drying of bioactive compounds from cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica]. Food Chemistry 114:616-622
[107]
Janiszewska E, Wlodarczyk J (2013) Influence of spray drying conditions on beetroot pigments retention after microencapsulation process. Acta Agrophysica 20(2):343-356
[108]
Obón J, Castellar M, Alacid M, Fernández-López J (2009) Production of a red–purple food colorant from Opuntia stricta fruits by spray drying and its application in food model systems. Journal of Food Engineering 90:471-479
[109]
Azeredo H, Santos A, Souza A (2007) Betacyanin stability during processing and storage of a microencapsulated red beetroot extract. American Journal of Food Technology 4(2): 307-312
[110]
Silva LV, Nelson DL, Drummond MF, Dufossé L, Glória MB (2005) Comparison of hydrodistillation methods for the deodorization of turmeric. Food Research International 38:1087-1096
[111]
Hsu C, Cheng A (2007) Clinical studies with curcumin. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 595:471–480
[112]
Liang JL, Meng YZ, Lei CG (2007) Study on antiseptic effects of curcumin. China Food Additives 2:73-79
[113]
Wang Y, Zhang YF, Zhang H, Lu ZX (2007) Study on the stability of microcapsule curcumin. Science and Technology of Food Industry 28(11):193-195
[114]
Martins R, Pereira S, Siqueira S, Salomão W, Freitas L (2013) Curcuminoid content and antioxidant activity in spray dried microparticles containing turmeric extract. Food Research International 50:657-663
[115]
Carmona M, Martinez J, Zalacain A, Rodriguez-Mendez MA, De Saja JA, Alonso GL (2006) Analysis of saffron volatile fraction by TD-GC-MS and enose. European Food Research and Technology 223:96-101
[116]
Javadi B, Sahebkar A, Emami S (2013) A survey on saffron in major Islamic traditional medicine books. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Iran 16
[117]
Fernandez J (2004) Biology, biotechnology and biomedicine of saffron. Recent research developments in plant science 2:127-159
[118]
Ghorpade V, Deshpande S, Salunkhe D (1995) Food colors. Maga J, Tu T. Food additive toxicology. Marcel Dekker, New York 179-233
[119]
Mahdavee Khazaei K, Jafari S, Ghorbani M, Hemmati Kakhki A (2014) Microencapsulation of saffron petals's anthocyanins and evaluating their storage stability and color. Carbohyrate polymers 105: 57-62
[120]
Selim K, Tsimidou M, Biliaderis CG (2000) Kinetic studies of degradation of sa€ron carotenoids encapsulated in amorphous polymer matrices. Food Chemistry 71:199-206.
[121]
Ersus S (2004) Microencapsulation of anthocyanin pigments of black carrot. Ege Universty, Institution of Science, PhD Thesis: Izmir, Turkey.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186