Development of High Protein Content Homemade Bread by Nutritional Yeast Fortification for Disadvantaged Communities
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 194-198
Received: Mar. 13, 2014; Accepted: Apr. 15, 2014; Published: May 20, 2014
Views 3216      Downloads 273
Serere Julien Harusekwi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Midlands State University, P. Bag 9055 Gweru, Zimbabwe
Nyamunda B. C., Department of Chemical and Processing Engineering, Manicaland College of Applied Sciences, P. Bag 9055 Gweru, Zimbabwe
Mutonhodza B., Department of Food Science and Technologhy, Midlands State University, P. Bag 9055 Gweru, Zimbabwe
Article Tools
Follow on us
The main objective of the study was to develop high protein content homemade bread through fortification with nutritional yeast. Fortified bread boosts the nutritional status of poor people and reduces the incidence of protein energy deficiency diseases. The homemade bread was reformulated by adding various concentrations of nutritional yeast in the range 1-15% (w/w) to wheat flour. The bread was baked using the straight dough method. Protein, carbohydrate and moisture content of the fortified bread were evaluated. Sensory evaluation was conducted on bread samples to evaluate the bread acceptance levels. The results of the study revealed that the protein content increased with an increase in concentration of nutritional yeast. Addition of nutritional yeast decreased the loaf height but increased the weight of the loaves. The test panels accepted bread fortified with 1-3.5% nutritional yeast but bread with higher amounts of nutritional yeast (5-15%) were generally unacceptable. This study shows the potential of using nutritional yeast in improving protein quality of homemade bread consumed by economically disadvantaged communities.
Bread, Fortification, Nutrition, Protein, Yeast
To cite this article
Serere Julien Harusekwi, Nyamunda B. C., Mutonhodza B., Development of High Protein Content Homemade Bread by Nutritional Yeast Fortification for Disadvantaged Communities, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2014, pp. 194-198. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140303.20
B. Shrinandan, “Food and nutrition,” India: I.T.B.S Publishers, 2010.
M. Friedman and P.A. Finot, “Nutritional improvement of bread with lysine and gamma-glutamyllysine,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 38(11), pp. 2011-2020, 1990.
M.S. Donaldson, “Metabolic vitamin b12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 44(5-6), 229-234, 2000.
G.S. Jensen, K.M. Patterson and I. Yoon, “Nutritional Yeast Culture has Specific Anti-Microbial Properties without Affecting Healthy Flora. Preliminary Results”, Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, vol. 17, pp. 247-252, 2008.
B.H. Olson and M.J. Johnson, “Factors producing high yeast yields in synthetic media,” Journal of Bacteriology, American Society of Microbiology, vol. 57(2), pp. 235-242, 1949.
E.A. Yamada and V.C. Sgarbieri, “Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) protein concentrate: preparation, chemical composition, and nutritional and functional properties,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53(10), pp. 3931-3936, 2005.
S. Rodríguez-Navarro, B. Llorente, M.T. Rodríguez-Manzaneque, A. Ramne, G. Uber, D. Marchesan, B. Dujon, E. Herrero, P. Sunnerhagen and J.E. Pérez-Ortín “Functional analysis of yeast gene families involved in metabolism of vitamins B1 and B6,” Yeast, vol. 19(14), 1261-1276, 2002.
B. Bekatorou, C. Psarianos and A.A. Koatiinas, “Food grade yeasts: food technology,” Biotechnology; vol. 44 (3), pp. 407-415, 2006.
L. Hong, M. Xun and W. Wutong, “Anti-diabetic effect of an Α-glucan from fruit body of Maitake (Grifola Frondosa) on KK-Ay mice,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 59(4), pp. 575-585, 2007.
V.G. Zetic, V Stehlik-Tomas, S. Grba and L Lutilsky, “Chromium uptake by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and isolation of glucose tolerance factor from yeast biomass,” Journal of Biosciences, vol. 26(2), pp. 217-223, 2001.
A.A. Paul, and D.A.T. Southgate, “McCance and Widdowsons’ composition of foods,” London: Elsevier Press, 1979.
H.M. Barker, “Nutrition and dietetics for health care,” London: Churchill-Livingstone Publishers, 2002.
M. Swaminathan, “Food science chemistry and experimental foods,” Bangalore: Bangalore, Publishers, 1990.
P. Ravindra, Value-added food: Single cell protein, Biotechnology Advances, vol. 18(6), pp 459-479, 2000.
M.G. Wardlaw, S.J. Hamphl and. A.R. Disilvestro, Perspectives in nutrition, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
R.B. Bradstreet, “The Kjeldahl method for organic nitrogen,” New York: Academic Press, 1965.
J.M. Bremmner, “Determination of nitrogen in solid by Kjedahl Method,” Journal of Agriculture Sciences, vol. 55 (1), pp. 11-33, 1960.
E. Rajakyla and M. Paloposki, “Determination of Sugars in Molasses by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Comparison of the results with those obtained by the classical Lane-Eylon method”, Journal of Chromatograph A, vol. 282, pp. 595-602, 1983.
M.E.J. Lean, “Fox and Cameron’s food science nutrition and health,” New York: Edward Arnold Publishers, 2006.
F.D. Conforti and S.F. Davis, “The effect of soya flour and flaxseed as a partial replacement for bread flour in yeast bread,” International Journal of Food Science & Technology, vol. 41(s2), pp. 1-157, 2006.
J.M. Sanz-Penella, M. Wronkowska, M. Soral-Smietana and M. Haros, “Effect of whole amaranth flour on bread properties and nutritive value, Food Science and Technology, vol. 50(2), pp. 679-685, 2013.
H. He and R.C. Hoseney, “Changes in bread firmness and moisture during long term storage,” Cereal Chemistry, vol. 67 (6), pp. 603-605, 2002.
V.A. Vaclavik, and W.E. Christian, “Essentials in food science,” New York: Springer, 2008.
D.S. Mottram, B.L. Wedzicha and A.T. Dodson, “Food chemistry: acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction,” Nature, vol. 419, pp. 448-449, 2002.
B.J. Tepper and U. Ulrich, “Taste, smell and the genetics of food preferences,” London: SAGE Publications, 2002.
P.S. Murano, “Understanding food science and technology,” New York: Peter Marshall Publishers, 2003.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186