The Effect of Preservatives and Flavour Additive on the Production of Oxygen-Free Radicals by Isolated Human Neutrophils
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 210-215
Received: Mar. 20, 2014;
Accepted: May 9, 2014;
Published: May 30, 2014
Views 3015 Downloads 469
E. Al-Shammari, Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Hail, Ksa
R. Bano, Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Hail, Ksa
S. Khan, Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Hail, Ksa
I. Shankity, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Hail, Ksa
Introduction: Researchers have recently described a relationship between food additives and immune system responses. A decline in immune response has also been observed in people who are in contact with food additives, such as preservatives and flavours found in different foods. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effect of food additives, such as vanillin, Monosodium L- glutamate, Sodium Benzoate, and potassium nitrate, on the production of oxygen free radicals (OFRs) by isolated human nutrophils. Methods: The study was based on the isolation of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes; PMNs) from normal blood to determine the effects of preservatives and flavouring additives on the production of Oxygen Free Radicals by stimulated PMNs. The study was carried out in the department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Saudi Arabia. Results: After compleating the research it was found that most of the food preservatives and flavouring additives produced a significant inhibitory effect on the production of OFRs by isolated human PMNs. Higher concentrations of most of the food additives had significant effects on the chemiluminescence’s response. However, moderate effects have been seen with most of the food additives at lower concentrations. Conclusion : Most of the food additives used in this study produced a significant effect on the oxidative respiratory burst and phagocytosis of isolated human PMNs. As there are few comprehensive studies in this field, we recommend that the responsible agencies conduct further investigations regarding the effects of these additives, as well as their complications.
The Effect of Preservatives and Flavour Additive on the Production of Oxygen-Free Radicals by Isolated Human Neutrophils, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2014, pp. 210-215.
How do food additives such as artificial flavors, preservatives, and others affect your physical well being, available at www.wholevegan.com/food_additives.html
Branen, A. Larry (2002). Food Additives, 2nd edition. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Clydesdale, Fergus M. (1997). Food Additives: Toxicology, Regulation, and Properties. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Potter, Norman N., and Hotchkiss, Joseph H. (1995) Food Science, 5th edition. New York: Chapman & Hall.
Health knot.com, food additives and health, available at www.healthknot.com/food_additives.html
Dalton, Louisa (11 2002). "Food Preservatives". Chemical and Engineering News 80 (45): 40. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
"Using Preservatives". Food Additive AND Ingredients Association Retrieved 9 February 2012.
Branen AL, Davidson M, Salminen S et al (2001). Food additives. Marcel Dekker London, 2nd Edition, pp. 1-8.
Jones JM (1992). Food Safety. Eagan press, USA, 1st Edition, pp 203-299.
Hriscu M, Saulea G, Vidrascu N et al (1997). Effects of monosodium gluta-mate on blood neutrophils phagocytic activity and phagocytic response in mice. Rom.J.Physiol., 34:95-101.
Kumar V, Ganguly NK, Anand IS et al (1991). Release of oxygen free radicals by macrophages and neutrophils in patients with rheumatic fever. European Heart Journal, 12:163-165.
Witz G (1991). Active oxygen species as factors in multistage carcinogenesis. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 198: 675-682.
Opara EC (2002). Oxidative stress, micronutrients, diabetes mellitus and its complications. J. R. Soc. Health, 122: 28 - 34.
Wieland E, Brandes A, and Oellerich M et al (1993). Oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Eur.J.Clin.Chem.Clin. Biochem., 31: 725-731.
Lauren S (1999). How the Immune System Works. Blackwell Science, Inc, United Kingdom, 8th Edition, pp 5- 24.
Aruoma OI and Halliwell B (1991). Free radicals and food additives. Taylor & Francis, London, New York, Philadelphia, pp. 1-192
Shalabi EA and Al-Tuwaijri AS (1996). The thermal potentiation of acetaminophen-inhibited PMN oxidative me-tabolism in vitro. Biopharmaceutics and drug disposition, 17: 501-509
Mustafa AA and Al-Tuwaijiri AS (1992). Stimulated Chemilumienescence of isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: in vitro inhibition; Melittin. journal of Natural Toxins,1:65-76.
Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (2011). Flavours permitted for use in foodstuffs.
Aruoma OI and Halliwell B (1991). Free radicals and food additives. Taylor & Francis, London, New York, Phila-delphia, pp. 1-192
Gaworski CL, Vollmuth TA, Dozier MM, Heck JD, Dunn LT, Ratajczak HV and Thomas PT (1994). An Immunotoxicity Assessment of food flavouring ingredients. Food Chem Toxic,32:409–415.
Murry MJ and Tomas PT (1992). Toxic consequences of chemical interactions with the immune system. In principles and practices of immunotoxicology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. pp. 65-85.
Thomas P, Busse W, et al (1990). Immunologic effects of pesticides. In effects of Pesticides on Human Health. Advances in modern environmental Toxicology. Princeton Scientific, Princeton, NJ. pp. 261-296.
Hriscu M, Saulea G, Vidrascu N and Baciu I (1997). Effects of monosodium glutamate on blood neutrophils phagocytic activity and phagocytic response in mice. Rom.J. Physiol., 34:95-101.
Pierson MD and Smoot LA (1982). Nitrite Alternatives, and the control of Clostridium Botulinum in Cured meats. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr.,17: 141-187.