International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 222-229
Received: Apr. 19, 2014;
Accepted: May 10, 2014;
Published: May 30, 2014
Views 3182 Downloads 239
Emad Abou El Khair, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University- Gaza, Palestine
Abd Al- Raziq Salama, Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University- Gaza, Palestine
Hatem I. Abu Mezyed, Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University- Gaza, Palestine
Sobhy M. Mohsen, Department of Food & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt
Hashem Arafa, Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Gaza, Palestine
This research aimed to investigate the bacteriological quality of artisanal ice cream sold in the local shops in Gaza city, Palestine. A total of 102 random samples of artisanal ice cream were collected from 5 different popular local shops from Gaza city markets were selected. Ice cream ingredients, shops air, plastic cups, and seller's hands were examined microbiologically. All samples were free from Staphylococci, Salmonella and Shigella. Incidence of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli and fecal coliforms were found in the higher numbers. The percentage failure in complying the standards is distributed as follows; 32.4% with Total Plate Count, 55.9% with coliforms, 55.9% with fecal coliforms, 26.5% with E. coli, 5.9% with molds, 2.9% with O. lactis and 20.6% with yeasts. Examination of ice cream ingredients showed that primary sources of microbial contamination to ice cream could include water and raw milk whereas secondary sources include flavoring agents, utensils and handling. The results emphasize the need to use good and healthy ice cream ingredients and observing the hygienic conditions of the retail shops including common area, equipment, utensils and food handling.
Emad Abou El Khair,
Abd Al- Raziq Salama,
Hatem I. Abu Mezyed,
Sobhy M. Mohsen,
Microbiological Quality of Artisanal-Ice Cream Produced in Gaza City – Palestine, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2014, pp. 222-229.
JayJ. (1992). Modern Food Microbiology. 4th edition, Chapman and Hall Inc., New York, USA.
Hennessy T, Hedberg C, Slutsker L, White K, Besser-WiiekJ, Moen M, Feldman J, Coleman W, Edmonson L, MacDonald K, Osterholm M. (1996). A national outbreak of Salmonellaenteritidis infections from ice cream, New England Journal of Medicine 334: 1281–1286.
Daniels NA, Mackinnon L, Rowe SM, Bean NH, Griffin PM, Mead PS. (2002). Food borne disease outbreaks in United States schools. Pediatrics Infectious Disease Journal 21(7): 623–8.
Djuratic T, Wall PG, Nichols G, (1997). General outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease asso-ciated with milk and dairy products in England and Wales: 1992 to 1996. PHLS Common Dis Rep CDR Rev 7(3):R 41-5.
Dodhia H, Kearney J, Warburton F.(1998). A birthday party, home-made ice cream, and an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 6 infection, Communicable Disease and Public Health 1(1):31–34.
Azadnia P, Ghasemi S, Abbasi M,Taarof N, Jashni K.(2011). Microbial Quality of Traditio-nalice cream Produced by Small-Scale Manufacturers in Khormoj and Its Comparison with the Iranian National Standard. Journal of animal and veterinary advances 10(6):742-744.
The Hi media Manual. For Microbi-ology Laboratory Practice,1998. Mumbai, India.
APHA (1995). Standard methods. 19th Edition. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 8th Ed., Rev. A, AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Gaithersburg, MD.
King AD,Jr Hocking AD, Pitt JI. (1979).Dichloran-RoseBengal medium for the enumeration and isolation of molds from foods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 37: 959–964.
Joshi DR, Shah PK, Manandhar S, Sharma S, Banmali P. (2004).Microbial quality of ice cream sold in Kathmandu. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council 2(2): 37-40.
Ahmed K, Hussain A, Imran, Qazalbash M, Hussain W.(2009). Microbiological quality of ice cream sold in Gilgit town. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (9): 1397- 1400.
Kanbakan U, Çon A, Ayar A.(2004).Determination of microbiological contamination sources during ice cream production in Denizli, Turkey, Food Control 15(6):463–470.
Wilson IG, Heany JCN, Weatherup STC.(1997).The effect of ice cream scoop water on the hygiene of ice cream. Epidemiology and Infection 119: 35–40.
MohammadMarathe A, Verkaik NJ, de Vogel CP, Boelens HA, Verveer J,Nouwen JL.(2012). Reclassification of Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage Types. J Infect Dis199 (12): 1820-6.
Yaman H, Elmali M, Ulukanli Z, Tuzcu M, Genctav K. (2006). Microbial quality of Ice cream sold openly by retail outlets in Turkey, Revue. Med. Vet 157: 457-462.
Masud T. (1989). Microbiological quality and public health significance of Ice cream. J Pak Med Assoc39(4): 102- 4.
Graceleah O, Orallo, Aileneli H, Esperanza C, Cabrera P. (1999). Microbial Analysis of Ice Cream Produced by Big-Scale and Small-Scale Manufacturers in Metro Manila, Phil J Microbiol Infect Dis 28(3): 99-101.
Bahareem OH,El-Shamy HA,Bakr WM, Gomaa NF.(2007). Bacteriological quality of some dairy products (kariesh cheese andice cream) in Alexandria, J. Egypt Public Health Assoc 82(5-6):491-510.
GhasemiM,AzadniaP, Maghsoodi A.(2009). Comparison of the Microbial Quality of Traditional Ice Cream Produced by Small-Scale Manufacturers inKazeroonwith the Iranian National Standard, Research Journal of Biological Sciences 4 (8): 925-927.
Vigil J, Jiang D, Chen J, Palumbo L, Galbadage T, Brown, L, Yiang J, Koo H, DuPont W, Ericsson C, Adachi A, DuPont L. (2009). Coliform and Escherichia coli Contamination of Desserts Served in Public Restaurants from Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas, Am J Trop Med Hyg 80(4): 606-8.
AbouElkhair EK,AltartoryS. (2012). Microbiological Quality of Marketed Drinking Water in Gaza City. Journal of Al-Azhar University-Gaza14:1-18.