Chemical, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Selected Seeds’ Flours
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 572-578
Received: Nov. 5, 2014; Accepted: Nov. 19, 2014; Published: Nov. 24, 2014
Views 3140      Downloads 475
Olorode Omobolanle O., Department of Food Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, P.M.B. 2210, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
Idowu Michael A., Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
Bamgbose Adefunke, Department of Food Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, P.M.B. 2210, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
Ayano Adeola E., Central Teaching and Research Laboratory, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study was conducted to investigate qualities of benoil (Moringa oleifera), melon, water melon (Citrullus lanatus L.), pear and pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds’ flours with a view of harnessing them for consumption and possible industrial usage. All the seeds were manually separated from fruit pulps / pod, cleaned, washed with distilled water, air dried, shelled manually, sun dried and then grinded to flours. Chemical contents and functional properties of the resulting seed’s flours were determined using standard methods. The results of the proximate and mineral composition indicated that all the seeds’ flours contained considerable amounts of protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash, crude fibre, Ca, Na, Fe and P which made them potentials food supplements/food processing especially benoil (Moringa oleifera) and pawpaw seeds’ flours. The result shows that watermelon seed flour ranked the highest in terms of all the phytochemical contents determined except its saponin content which was low. Melon seed’s flour was low in saponin and tannin contents while its flavonoids and alkaloids contents were high. Saponin content of benoil seed’s flours was also high compare to other seeds’ flours tested. The tannin and flavonoid contents of benoil seed flour were low while the alkaloids content shows to be low in melon seed flour. However, the cyanide content of all the seeds’ flours examined were low generally which shows the seeds’ flours are expected to be save for consumption. There were significant (p > 0.05) differences between the samples for all the phytochemical content determined. The seeds’ containing all these phytochemicals show that they are highly medicinal and is good for human consumption especially watermelon and benoil (Moringa oleifera) seeds’ flours. Also, the investigation showed that all the flours are characterized with good functional properties which mean they could be incorporated into food or use for industrial purpose most especially in infant food formulation. These qualities are indications that great potential exist for these seeds instead of throwing them away as waste after consuming the fruit pulp.
Benoil Seed, Saponin, Protein, Pawpaw Seed’s Flour, Calcium
To cite this article
Olorode Omobolanle O., Idowu Michael A., Bamgbose Adefunke, Ayano Adeola E., Chemical, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Selected Seeds’ Flours, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2014, pp. 572-578. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140306.23
Hussein, A.M.S, Kamil, M.M and Mohammed, G.F (2011). Phytochemical and sensorial quality of Semolina defatted guava seed flours composite pasta. J. Amer. Sc., 7 (6): 623-629
Ajila, C.M., Naidu, K.A. Bhat S.G and Prasada, R (2007) Bioactive compounds and antioxidant Chemists potential of mango peel extract. Food Chem., 105: 982-988
Schieber, A. , Stintizing, F.C and Carle, R (2001). By products of plant food processing as a source of functional compound, recent developments. Trends Food Sci. and Techn., 12(11):401-413
Marfo, E.K., Oke, O.L. and Afolabi, O.A (1986). Some studies on the protein of Carica papaya seeds. Food Chem., 22 (4): 267-277
Imaga, N.O.A, Gbenle, G.O, Okochi V.I, Akanbi, S.O, Edeoghon, S.O, Oigbochie, V., Kehinde M.O and Bamiro S.B (2009). Antisickling property of Carica papaya leaf extract. African J. Biochem. Res., 3:102-106
Okeniyi, J. A.O, Ogunlesi, T.A, Oyelami O.A and Adeyemi L.A (2007). Effectiveness of dried Carica papaya against Human Intestinal parasitosis; a pilot study. J. Med. Food, 10: 194-196
Hertog, M.G., et al. (1995). Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Arch Intern Med 155(4): p. 381-6.
Arts, I.C. and Hollman, P.C (2005). Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr, 81(1 Suppl): p. 317S-325S.
Kushi, L.H, Doyle, C and McCullough, M (2012). American Cancer Society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: Reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin. 62:30-67
Elemo, B.O, Elemo, G.N, Oladimeji, O.O and Komolafe. Y.O (2002). Studies on the composition of some nutrients and anti nutrients of Sheanut (Butyrospernum parkii). Niger. Food J. 20: 69-73.
Adekunle , V.A.J and Ogerinde, O.V (2004). Food Potentials of some indigenous wild fruit in lowland rainforests ecosystem of south west Nigeria. J. Food Technol. 2: 125-130
AOAC (2000). Official methods of analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th Ed., Arlinton, VA, USA
Egan, H., Kirk, S.K. and Sawyer, R (1981). Pearson’s chemical analysis of foods (8th edition). Longman Group Ltd.
Harborne, J.B. (1973). Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London. P. 27
Sathe, S.K., Desphande, S.S. and Salunkhe, D.K. (1982). Functional properties of Lupin seed (Lipinus mutabilis) Protein and protein concentrates. Journal of food Science 47:491-497.
Leach, H.W., McCowen L.D. and Scoch, T.J. (1959). Structure of starch granule, swelling and solubility patterns of various starches. Cereal Chemistry 36: 534-544.
Akpapunam, M.A. and Markakis, P. (1987). Physiochemical and nutritional aspects of Cowpea flour. Journal of food Science 46: 972-973
Coffman, C.W. and Garcia, V.V. (1977). Functional properties of flours prepared from Chinese indigenous legume seed. Food Chemistry 61: 429-433.
Pugalenthi, M., Vadivel, V., Gurumoorthi, P. and Janardhanan (2004). Comparative nutritional evaluation of little known legumes, Tamarindus indica, Erythrina indica and Sesbania bispinosa. Trop. Subtrop. Agroecosyst. 4: 107-123.
Ojokoh, A.O., and Lawal, R.T (2003). Changes in nutrient content of popcorn and groundnut composite flours subjected to solid substrate fermentation, Int. J. Tropical Med. & Pub. Health, Vol. 1 Issue 1, 50-53.
Nzikou, J.M., Mate, L., Bouanga-kalou, G., Ndangui, C.B., Pambou-Tobi, N.P.G., Kimbonguila, A., Silo, T., Linder, M and Desobry, S (2009). Chemical composition of the seeds and oil of sesame (Sesamun indicum L.) grown in Congo-Brazzaville. Advance Journal of food Science and Technology, 1(1), 6-11
Hassan, L.G., Sanni N.A., Dangoggo, S.M and Ladan M.J (2008). Nutritional value of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) seeds. Global J. Pure & Applied Sci., Vol.4 No. 3, 301-306.
Dreon, D.M, Vranizan, K.M, Krauss, R.M, Austin, M.A and Wood, P.D (1990). The effects of polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat on plasma, Lipoproteins. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 263: 2462.
Galal, I.M.I (1992). Chemical valuation and utilization of some wastes from canning Industry, M.Sc. thesis, Faculty of Agriculture Ain University, Cairo Egypt, pp: 36-40 and 46-48
Mabaleha, M.B., Mitei, Y.C. and Yeboah, S.O (2007). A comparative study of the properties of selected melon seed oils as potential candidates for development into commercial edible vegetable oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 84:31-36
Alobo, A. (2003). Proximate composition and components in soybean foods and selected functional properties of defatted papaya (Carica papaya L.) kernel flour. Plant Foods for Hum. Nutr., 58: 1-7.
Eromosele, I.C and Eromosele, C.O (1993). Studies on the chemical composition and physio-chemical properties of seeds of some wild plants: (Netherland) Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 43: 251-258.
Adebisi, G.A. and Olagunju, E.O (2011). Nutritional potential of the seed of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis), Journal of New Trends in Science and Technology Application, Vol. 1 No 1, 7-18.
Bello, M. O., Falade, O. S., Adewusi, S. R. A. and Olawore, N. O (2008). Studies on the chemical compositions and anti nutrients of some lesser known Nigeria fruits. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (21), pp. 3972-3979
Arawande, J.O. and Borokini, F.B (2010). Comparative study on chemical composition and functional properties of three Nigerian legumes (Jack beans, pigeon pea and cowpea), J. Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 1 (1), 89-95
FAO (1970). Amino acid contents of foods and biological data on protein, Food policy and food science service, 72.
FAO (1982). Food composition table for the near East nuts and seeds, FAO food and nutrition paper, 26, 85.
Eka, O.U (1987). Evaluation of nutritive value of feed for growing broilers in Northen Nigeria. Niger. J. Sci. 21: 52-54.
Adewusi, S.R.A, Udio, A.J, and Osuntogun, B.A (1995). Studies on the Carbohydrate Content of Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) from South-Western Nigeria. Starch Nutr. 85: 289-294.
Olaofe O and Akogun, O.O (1990). Mineral and Vitamin C content and their distribution in some fruits. Niger. Food J. 8: 111
Oluyemi, E.A, Akinlua, A.A, Adenuga, A.A and Adebayo, M.B (2006). Mineral Contents of some commonly consumed Nigerian foods. Sci. Focus.11(1): 153-157.
National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (1991). Recommended Dietary intakes for use in Australia. Australian Government Publishing Service, G.P.O. Box 84, and Canberra ACT2601
Soetan, K.O and Oyewole, O.E (2009). The need for adequate processing to reduce the anti-nutritional factors in animal feeds: a review. Afr. J. Food Sci., 3(9): 223-232.
Ajayi, I.A, Ajibade, O and Oderinde R.A (2011). Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of some Plant Seeds Res. J. Chem. Sci., 1(3): 58-62.
Armstrong, W.D., Rogler, J.C and Featherston, W.R (1974). Effects of Tannins Extraction on the performance of Chicks fed Bird resistant Sorghum grain diets. Poult. Sci., 53: 714-720.
Khalil, A.H and Eladawy, T.A (1994). Isolation, Identification and Toxicity of Saponins from different legumes. Food Chem., 50(2): 197-201.
Oseni, O.A. and Okoye, V.I. (2013). Studies of Phytochemical and Antioxidant properties of fruits of Watermelon. J. of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sci. 27(27): 508-514
Ayinde, B.A, Onwukaeme, D.N and Omogbai, E.K.I (2007). Isolation and characterization of two Phenolic compounds from the stem bark of Musanga cecropioides R. Brown (Moraceae). Acta Pol. Pharm. 64:183-185.
Li-Weber, M (2009). New Therapeutic aspects of flavones: the anticancer properties of Scutellaria and its main active constituents Wogonin, Baicalein and Bacalin. Cancer Treat Rev. 35: 57-68.
Stray, F (1998). The Natural Guide to medicinal Herbs and plants. Tiger book International, London pp 10-25
Fasasi, O.S., Adeyemi, I.A. and Fagbenro, O.A. 2006. Physicochemical properties of Maize-tilapia flour blends. Journal of Food Technology 3 (3): 342-345.
Samir- El Safy, F., Rabab, H., S and Abd El-Ghany, M.E (2012). Chemical and Nutritional Evaluation of Different Seed Flours as Novel Sources of Protein. World J. of Dairy & Food Sciences 7(1): 59-65
Obatolu, V. A. and Cole, A.H. 2000. Functional property of complementary blends of Soybean and Cowpea with malted or unmalted maize. Food Chemistry. 70: 147-153.
Omueti, O., Otegbayo B., Jaiyeola O. and Afolabi O. 2009. Functional properties of complementary diets developed from Soybean (Glycine max), Groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and Crafish (Macrobrachium spp.). Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 8 (8): 563-573
Akubor, P.I. and Chukwu, J.K. 1999. Proximate composition and selected functional properties of fermented and unfermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed flour. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 54: 227-238.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186