Mineral Content and Mycotoxin Level in Different Classes of Cheese Marketed in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages: 154-160
Received: Feb. 2, 2015; Accepted: Feb. 21, 2015; Published: Mar. 2, 2015
Views 3599      Downloads 173
Eman Nabil Abdelfatah, Food Control Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig Univeristy, Zagazig, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Ninety (90) different local (small scale and large scale) and imported cheese samples which were consumed by different classes of consumers were collected from different markets in Sharkia, Egypt for analyzing them for mineral content and mycotoxin level. The results revealed that 9 out of 30 examined small scale cheese samples (30 %) were contaminated by ochratoxin A (OTA), the minimum was 2.0 ppb and the maximum was 5.0 ppb, while only 7/30 (23.33%) of examined large scale cheese samples were contaminated by OTA with a mean value of 1.98±0.32 ppb. On the other side imported cheese samples was contaminated by OTA by percentage of 36.67%. All the positive samples of the three types were Exceeding Egyptian regulation permissible limits (P.L.). Regarding aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) level in the examined samples the results showed that the small scale samples have the highest contamination level with AFM1 recording 56.67% (17 out of 30) with levels ranging from 32.3 to 50.2 ng/kg and all the positive samples had AFM1 levels exceeding Egyptian regulation P.L., while the lowest AFM1 contamination level present in the imported cheese samples recording 33.33 % with a mean 25.74±1.82 ng/kg. Trace and heavy metals including Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn were present in the range of Zn > Pb> Cu > Cd >Hg in small scale and imported cheese samples, while in large scale samples it was in the order of Pb > Cu > Cd >Zn >Hg. The results of this study indicate that continuous monitoring of chemical contaminant levels in different types of cheese consumed by different classes of consumers in Sharkia Governorate should be regularly done. It also shows an alarming situation with respect to cheeses produced from all classes (small scale, large scale and even imported types).
AFM1, OTA, Heavy Metals, Cheese, P.L.
To cite this article
Eman Nabil Abdelfatah, Mineral Content and Mycotoxin Level in Different Classes of Cheese Marketed in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2015, pp. 154-160. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20150402.15
Enb, A., Abou Donia, M.A., Abd-Rabou, N.S., Abou-Arab, A.A.K. and El-Senaity, M.H. Chemical composition of raw Milk and heavy metals behavior during processing of milk products. Global Veterinaria. 3, 2009, P.268-275.
Awad, E.I., Abdelfattah M. E., Abdelkaliek, A.A. and El-diasty, E.M. Prevalence of ochratoxin in small and large scale produced roomy cheese in Sharkia Governorate. World Rural Observations. 4, 2012.
Lindqvist, R., Sylven, S. I. and Vagsholm, I. Quantitative microbial risk assessment exemplified by Staphylococcus aureus in unripened cheese made from raw milk. International Journal Food Microbiology. 78, 2002, P.155-170.
Bennett, J. W. and Klich, M. Mycotoxins. Clinical Microbiology Reviews.16, 2003, P.497-516.
Hedayati, M. T., Pasqualotto, A. C., Warn, P. A., Bowyer, P. and Denning, D. W. Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer. Microbiology. 153, 2007, P. 1677-1692.
Jouany, J. P. Mycotoxins in feed and their fate in animals. Animal Research. 51, 2002, P.81-99.
Dashti, B., Al-Hamli, S., Alomirah, H., Al-Zenki, S., Bu Abbas, A. and Sawaya, W. Levels of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese consumed in Kuwait and occurrence of total aflatoxin in local and imported animal feed. Food Control Journal. 20, 2009, P. 686–690.
Sassahara, M., Pontes, N. D. and Yanak, E. K. Aflatoxin occurrence in foodstuff supplied to dairy cattle and aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in the North of Parana state. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 43, 2005, P.981-984.
IARC, (International Agency for Research on Cancer): Some traditional herbal medicines: Some mycotoxins, naphthalene and styrene. IARC Monograph on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, World Health Organization, Lyon, France. 82, 2002, P.1–556.
Tajkarimi, M., Aliabadi-Shojaee, F., Salah Nejad, A., Pursoltani, H., Motallebi, A. A.and Mahdavi, H. A flatoxin M1 contamination in winter and summer milk in 14 states in Iran. Food Control. 19, 2008, P. 1033-1036.
Picinin, L.C.A., Cerqueira, M.M.O.P., Vargas, E.A., Lana, A.M.Q., Toaldo, I.M. and Bordignon-Luiz, M.T. Influence of climate conditions on a flatoxin M1 contamination in raw milk from Minas Gerais State, Brazil Food Control Journal. 31, 2013, P.419-42.
Zerfiridis, G. K. Potential a flatoxin hazards to human health from direct mold Teleme cheese. Journal of Dairy Science. 68, 1985, P.2184-2188.
Deveci, O. and Sezgin, E. Change in concentration of aflatoxin M1 during manufacture and storage of skim milk powder. Journal of Food Protection. 69, 2006, P.682-685.
Lopez, C., Ramos, L., Ramadan, S., Bulacio, L. and Perez, J. Distribution of aflatoxin M1 in cheese obtained from milk artificially contaminated. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 64, 2001, P.211-215.
IARC. Monograph (International Agency for Research on Cancer). Monograph on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 56, 1993, P.11–116.
Clark, H. A. and Snedecker, S. M. Ochratoxin A: Its cancer risk and potential for exposure. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B. 9, 2006, P.265-296.
Varga, J., Frisvad, J. C. and Samson, R. A. Two new a flatoxin producing species and an overview of aspergillus section flavi. Studies in Mycology. 69, 2011, P.57-80.
Tornadijo, M. E., Fresno, J.M., Sarmiento, R.M. and Carballo, J. Penicillium species during the manufacturing and ripening of Armada raw goat's milk cheese: Identification, characteristics in vitro potential toxins production. Lait. , Journal Paper Number 12,451 of the Furdue University comsposing author. Agricultural Experiment Station. 78, 1998, P.661-672.
Ayar, A., Durmus-Sert, D. and Akın, N. The trace metal levels in milk and dairy products consumed in middle Anatolia, Turkey. Environ. Monit. Assess. 152, 2009, P.0167–6369 (print) and P.1573–2959 (online).
Bakircioglu, D., Kurtulus, Y.B. and Ucar, G. Determination of some traces metal levels in cheese samples packaged in plastic and tin containers by ICP-OES after dry, wet and microwave digestion. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 49, 2011, P. 202–207.
McCally, M. Human health and heavy metals exposure. The Environment and Human Health (Chapter 4). 2002.
Akhter, P., Baloch, N.Z., Mohammad, D., Orfi, S.D. and Ahmad, N. Assessment of strontium and calcium levels in Pakistani diet. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 73, 2004, P.247-256.
Siddiqui, I., Sirajuddin, N.S., Khan, F.A., Shahid, B., Tahir, M., Munshi, A.B. and Noman, S. Determination of some heavy metals in hen eggs using ICP – AES technique. Pakistan Journal of Biochemical Molecular Biology. 44, 2011, P.133 – 136.
Noel, L., Chekri, R., Millour, S., Vastel, C., Kadar, A., Sirot, V., Leblanc, J.C. and Guerin, T. Li, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo levels in foodstuffs from the Second French TDS. Food Chemistry.132, 2012, P.1502-1513.
Hansen, T.J. Quantitative testing for mycotoxins. VICAM. American Association of cereal. Chemists. 1993, Inc. 38/5-8.
Amer. A.A. and Ibrahim, M.A.E. Determination of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and traditional cheeses retailed in Egyptian markets. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. 2, 2010,p. 50-53.
Gijs, Du. L., Filip, M.G. and Tack, M. G. V. Performance of selected destruction methods for the determination of heavy metals in reed plants. (Phragmites australis) Analytica Chimica Acta. 497, 2003, P.191–198.
Thabet, H.M., Nogaim, Q.A., Alazaze, T.A., Alabadli, Y.S. and Aon, S.A. Microbiological Characteristics and Mineral Content of Local Smoked cheese produced in Yemen. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 1, 2013, P.65-71.
Pattono, D., Grosso, A., Stocco, P.P., Pazzi, M. and Zeppa, G. Survey of the presence of patulin and ochratoxin A in traditional semi- hard cheeses .Food Control Journal. 33, 2013 ,P. 54-57.
Montagna, M.T., Santacroce, M. P., Spilotros, G., Napoli, C., Minervini, F. and Papa, A. Investigation of fungal contamination in sheep and goat cheeses in southern Italy. Mycopathologia. 158, 2004, P.245-249.
Søresen, L. M., Jacobsen, T., Nielsen, P. V., Frisvad, J. C. and Koch, A. G. Microbiota in the processing areas of two different meat products. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 124, 2008, P.58-64.
López-Diaz, T. M.-Santos, J. A.- García-López, M. L. and Otero, A.: Surface mycoflora of a Spanish fermented meat sausage and toxigenicity of Penicillium isolates. International Journal of Food Microbiology.68, 2001, P.69-74.
Sorhaug, T. Spoilage Molds in Dairy Products.Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition). 2011, P. 780-784.
Pestka, J.J. and Bondy, G.S. Toxicology of mycotoxins In: Mycotoxins in Grain, Compounds other than Aflatoxin, Miller, J.D. and Trenholm, H.L. (ed.). 1994, p. 339-358. Eagan Press. St. Paul, MN.
Prelusky, D.B., Rotter, B.A. and Rotter, R.G. Toxicology of mycotoxins. In: Mycotoxins in Grain, Compounds Other than Aflatoxin, Miller, J.D. and Trenholm, H.L. (ed.). 1994, p. 359-403. Eagan Press. St. Paul, MN.
Beardall, J.M. and Miller, J.D. Diseases in humans with mycotoxins as possible causes. 1994. Residues in food products of animal origin. In: Mycotoxins in Grain, Compounds other than Aflatoxin, Miller, J.D. and Trenholm, H.L. (ed.). p. 487-539. Eagan Press. St. Paul, MN.
Kamkar, A. A study on the occurrence of a flatoxin M1 in Iranian Feta cheese. Food Control. 17, 2006, P. 768-775.
Tekinsen, K. K. and Ucar, G. Aflatoxin M1 levels in butter and cream cheese consumed in Turkey. Food Control. 19, 2008, P.346–349.
Tavakoli, H.R., Riazipour, M., Kamkarc, A., Shaldehi, H.R. and Nejad, A.S.M. Occurrence of a flatoxin M1 in white cheese samples from Tehran, Iran. 2012.
Elkak, A., El Atat, O., Habib, J. and Abbas, M. Occurrence of a flatoxin M1 in cheese processed and marketed in Lebanon Control. Food Control. 25, 2012, P. 140-143.
Mohajeri, F.A., Ghalebi, S.R., Rezaeian, M., Gheisari, H.R., Azad, H.K., Zolfaghari, A. and Fallah, A.A. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in white and Lighvan cheese marketed in Rafsanjan, Iran .Food Control Journal. 33, 2013, P.525-527.
Deveci, O. Changes in the concentration of a flatoxin M1 during manufacture and storage of white pickled cheese. Food Control Journal. 18, 2007, P.1103-1107.
Oruc, H. H., Cibik, R., Yilmaz, E.and Kalkanli, O. Distribution and stability of a flatoxin M1 during processing and ripening of traditional white pickled cheese. Food Additives and Contaminants. 23, 2006 , P.190-195.
Yapar, K., Elmali, M., Kart, A. and Yaman, H. Aflatoxcin M1 levels in different type of cheese products produced in Turkey. Medycyna Weterynaryjna. 64, 2008, P.53-55.
El-Tras, W.F., El-Kady, N.N. and Tayel, A.A. Novel food-borne zoonosis. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 49, 2011, P. 2816-2819.
Akkaya, L., Birdane, Y. O., Oguz, H. and Cemek, M. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in yogurt samples from Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy. 50, 2006, P.517-519.
Buldu, H. M., Koc, A. N. and Uraz, G. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in Cow’s milk in Kayseri (Central of Turkey).Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 35, 2011, P.1-5.
Wogan, G.N., Hecht, S.S., Felton, J.S., Conney, A.H. and Loeb, L.A. Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis. Seminars in Cancer Biology. 14, 2004, P. 473-486.
Caloni, F., Stammati, A., Friggè, G. and De Angelis, I. Aflatoxin M1 absorption and cyto-toxicity on human intestinal in vitro model. Toxicon. 47, 2006, P.409-415.
Coni, E., Bocca, A., Lanni, D. and Caroli, S. Preliminary evaluation of the factors influencing the trace element content of milk and dairy products. Food Chemistry. 52, 1995, P. 123–130.
Rezaei, M., Dastjerdi, H.A., Jafari, H., Farahi, A., Shahabi, A., Javdani, H., Teimoory , H., Yahyaei, M. and Malekirad, A.A. Assessment of dairy products consumed on the Arakmarket as determined by heavy metal residues .Health.6,2014,P.323-327 .
Muncke, J. Exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds via the food chain: is packaging a relevant source? Sci. Total Environ. 407, 2009, P.4549–4559.
US Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System, ‘‘Lead and compounds (inorganic)’’,2003 (CASRN7439-92-1).Downloaded from: http://www.epa.gov/ iris/subst/0277. htm on 20/11/2012.
FAO/WHO. Code of Practice for the Prevention and Reduction of Lead Contamination in Foods CAC/RCP (56-2004). FAO/WHO: Rome, Italy, 2004, pp. 1-5. Available from: http://www.codex alimentarius.net/dow-nload/ standards/ 10099/ CXC_056_ 2004e.pdf/.
Johnson, M.D., Kenney, N., Stoica, A., Hilakivi-Clarke, L., Singh, B., Chepko, G., Clarke, R., Sholler, P.F., Lirio, A.A. and Foss, C. Cadmium mimics the in vivo effects of estrogen in the uterus and mammary gland. Nature Medicine. 9, 2003, P. 1081-1084.
Järup, L. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br. Med. Bull. 68, 2003:167-82.
Navas-Acien, A., Tellez-Plaza, M., Guallar, E., Muntner, P., Silbergeld, E., Jaar, B. and Weaver, V. Blood cadmium and lead and chronic kidney disease in U.S. adults: a joint analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology. 170, 2009, P.1156-1164.
Manahan, S. Toxiological Chemistry. A guide to toxic substances in chemistry. Brooks/cole publishing Co. C. A., 1989.
Sarkar, B., Laussac, J. and Lau, S. Transports forms of copper in human serum. In: Sarkar, B. (ed): biological aspects of metals and metal related diseases. New York: Raven press. 1983, pp. 23-40.
Lee, R. Zinc. In: harbison R. (ed): Hamilton and Hardy's industrial toxicology. 5th edition, 1998, p.139-144.
Berman, E. Toxic metals and their analysis. Heyden and San Ltd., London, 1980.
Walshe, C., Sandstead, H. and Prasad, A. Health effects and research priorities for the 1990s. Environemental Health perspect. 102, 1994,P.5-16.
Egyptian Standard 1875-2/Maximum Limits for Mycotoxins in Foods – Ochratoxins, 2010.
Egyptian Standard 1- 1875. “Maximum levels of mycotoxin for foods and feeds, part-1: Aflatoxins” Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality, 2007.
Egyptian standard. NO.2360. Maximum levels of heavy metal contaminants in food. Egyptian organization for standardiazation "E.O.S.",1993
Amer, I.H., El Sayed, M.S. and Abd-El Aal, S.F.A. The preliminary content of heavy metal residues in raw cows milk and its distribution in some dairy products. Zagzig Veterinary Journal. Vol. 33, 2005, P.263-271.
Aly, M.M., Al-Seeni, M.N., Qusti, S.Y. and El-Sawi, N.M. Mineral content and microbiological examination of some white cheese in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during summer 2008. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 48,2010,p. 3031–3034
Acar, O. Determination and Evaluation of Copper, Lead, Iron and Zinc Contamination Levels in Cheese and Tahini Halva by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Journal of Food Safety. 13, 2011, p.45-53.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186