International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 700-706
Received: Jul. 25, 2015;
Accepted: Aug. 21, 2015;
Published: Jan. 8, 2016
Views 4351 Downloads 173
Malomo Olu, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Bells University of Technology, OTA, Ogun State, Nigeria
Alamu Ezekiel Adediran, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Bells University of Technology, OTA, Ogun State, Nigeria
The measurement of protein quality is usually non-specific, that is, if one compares this with the assay for minerals, one would find that in the case of minerals, a specific substance is being measured. However, with proteins, the quality depends on the quantity of at least 9 amino acids. The quality of the protein depends on the balance among the respective amino acids, on which the utilisation of the protein depends. As a result, the different methods of protein evaluation give different results for the nutritive value.
Alamu Ezekiel Adediran,
Protein Evaluation of Foods, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2015, pp. 700-706.
AKESON, W. R., AND STAHMAN M. A. (1964). A pepsin pancreatin digest index of protein quality evaluation. J. Nutri. 83; 257.
BALINGA, B. P., BAYLISS M. E. And LYMAN C. M. (1959). Determination of free lysine ∈-amino groups in cotton seed meals and preliminary studies on relation to protein quality. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 84: 1.
BENDER, A. E. And MILLER, D.S. (1953). A new brief method of estimating rat protein value. Biochem. J. 53, VII-VII
BENDER, A. E. (1971). Processing damage to protein foods. Paper presented at 18th PAG. Meeting Room (1971), PAG BULL., p. 10.
BENDER, A. E. And DOELL, B. H. (1957). Biological evaluation of protein; a new aspect. Brit. J. Nutri. 11: 140
BENDER, A. E. (1961). Determination of nutritive value of protein by chemical analysis. In: Meeting protein needs of infants and children pub. 843. National Academy of Sciences. Nat. Research Council, Washing, D. C. Pp 407.
BLOM., HENDRICKS, P. and CARLS, J. (1967). Determination of available lysine in foods. Anal. Biochem. 21: 382.
BOOTH, V. H. (1971). Problems in the determination FDNB available lysine. J. Sci. Food Sci. 40: 266
BRUNO AND CARPENTER, R. J. (1957). A modified procedure for the estimation of available lysine in protein. Biochem. J. 67: 13.
CARPENTER, K. J. (1960). The estimation of available lysine in animal protein foods. Biochem. J. 77: 604.
CARPENTER, K. J. (1974). Chemical and Microbial assays for the evaluation of processed protein foods. In: Nutrients in processed food proteins. American Medical Association (eds. P. L. White and D. C. Fletcher). Action, Massachussetts. Pub. Sciences Group Inc.
CALLOWAY, D. H. (1980). Energy-protein relations. Unpublished. Univerty of Carlifornia, Berkley. Dept. Of Nutritional Sciences, Berkley Ca. (Obtained from Dr. Richardson, Lord Zucherman Laboratory, University of Reading, Reading)
CONCON, J. M. (1975). Chemical determination of critical amino acids in cereal grainsa dn other foodstuffs. In: Protein nutritional quality of foods and feeds. Part 1 (ed. M. Friedman). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
EGGUM, B. D. (1968). Evaluation of protein quality and the development of screening techniques. Panel on new approaches to breeding for plant protein improvement held at Svalof, Sweden, 17-21 June 1968.
GARZA C., et al (1973). Human protein requirements – evaluation of the 1973 FOA/WHO safe level of protein intake for young men at high energy intakes. Brit. J. Nutr. 37: 403
HAMILTON, T. S. (1939). The growth, activity and composition of arts fed diets balanced and unbalanced with respect to protein. J. Nutr. 17: 565.
HS,U H. W., VARAK, D. L., SATHERLEE, L. D. And MILNER, G. A. (1977). A multi enzyme technique for estimating protein digestibility. J. Food. Sci. 42: 42: 1269.
HEGSTED, D. M. and CHANG Y. O. (1965). Protein utilisation in growing rats. 1. Relative growth index as a bioassay procedure. J. Nutr. 85: 159.
HOL M, H. (1971). Micro-method for determination of non-N-terminal lysine in milk and similar products. J. Sci. Food Agric. 22: 378.
KAPOUR, A. C. And HEINER R. E. (1982). Biochemical changes in developing wheat grains. Changes in nitrogen fractions, amino acids and nutritional quality. J. Sci. Food Agric. 33: 35.
MASON, I. D. and PALMER L. (1935). Utilisation of gelatine, casein and zein by adult rats. J. Nutri. 9: 489.
McLANGHLAN, J. M. (1972). Nutritional evaluation of proteins by biological methods. Cereal Sci. Today 117: 162.
McLANGHLAN, J. M. and KEITH M. O. (1975). Bioassays for protein quality. In: protein nutritional quality of foods and feeds. Vol. I (ed. M. Friedman). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
MILLE,R D. S. and BENDER, A. E. (1955). The determination of the net utilisation of proteins by a shortened method. Brit. J. Nutri. 9: 382.
MALOMO, O. (1982). Protein evaluation of foods. In. Germination as a unit: Its application in the development of a cereal-legume food product. PhD Thesis, University of Reading, UK.
MITCHELL, H. H. And BLOCK, R. J. (1946). Some relationship between the amino acid content of protein and their nutritive value for the rat. J. Biol. Chem. 163: 599.
OSBOURNE, T. B. And MENDEL, L. B. (1919a). Nutritive properties of proteins of maize kernel. J. Biol. Chem.. 18: 1.
OSER, B. L. (1959). An integrated essential amino acid index for predicting the Biological value of proteins. In: Protein and amino acid nutrition (ed. A. A. Albanese). Academic Press, New York PP 281.
RAO, S. R., CARTER F. C., and FRAMPTON V. L. (1963). Determination of available lysine in oil seed meal proteins. Anal. Chem.. 35: 1927.
RAO, P. B. R., NORTON H. W. And JOHNSN, B. C. (1964). The amino acid composition and nutritive value of proteins. V. The amino acid requirements as a pattern for protein evaluation. J. Nutr. 82: 88.
RICHARDSON et al (1975). Quantitative effect of an iso-energetic exchange of fat for carbohydrate on dietary protein utilisation in healty young men. Amer. J. Clinical Nutr. 32: 2217.
ROACH, A. G., SANDERSON, P. And WILLIAMS, D. R. (1967). Comparison of methods for the determination of available lysine values in animal adn vegetable protein sources. J. Sci. Food Agric. 18: 274.
SAID, A. K. and HEGSTED, D. M. (1969). Evaluation of dietary protein quality in adult rats. J. Nutr. 99: 474.
SAID, A. K. and HEGSTED, D. M. (1970). Response of adult rats to low dietary levels of essential amino acids. J, Nutr. 100: 1363.
SAUNDERS et al (1973). Measurement of digestibility of alfalfa protein concentrates by vitro methods j. Nutr. 103: 530.
SCHELLING, G. T. (1975). An efficient procedure for the complet evaluation of dietary proteins. In: Protein Nutritional quality of foods and feeds. Vol. 1 (ed. M. Friedman). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York. P. 137.
SHEFFENER, A. L., ECKFELDT, G. A. and SPECTOR, H. (1956). The pepsin digest residue (PDR) amino acid index of net protein utilisation. J. Nutr. 60: 105.
WALKER, A. F. (1979a). Determination of protein and reactive lysine in leaf protein concentrate by dye binding. Br. J. Nutr. 42: 445.
WALKER, A. F. (1981). The application of in-vitro methods to the estimation of protein quality of leaf protein concentrates. PhD Thesis, University of Reading, England.
YOUNG, V. R. and SCRIMSHAW, M. S. (1978). Nutritional Evaluation of proteins and protein requirements. In: Protein Resources and Technology (ed. M. Milner, M. S. Scrimshaw and D.I. C. Wang). Westport, Connecticut. AVI Publishoing Co., p. 136.