International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 2, March 2016, Pages: 85-94
Received: Feb. 8, 2016;
Accepted: Feb. 21, 2016;
Published: Mar. 2, 2016
Views 4265 Downloads 137
Shady Mohammed ElShehawy, Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; Food Industries Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Ali Abd El-Fatah Gab-Alla, Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; Marine Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
Hamed Mohammed Mutwally, Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Although fish is an important food as a source of high biological value of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as EPA and DHA, fish is a fast perishable food because of the high water activity and the high enzymatic activity in fish viscera. The main target of this study was to evaluate some sensory and chemical attributes of fresh fish samples from the Central Fish Market of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. However, 33 fresh fish samples of 11 species were randomly purchased from the Central Fish Market, El-Kaakia, Makkah, Saudi Arabia during spring 2015. These species are commonly consumed by the local population in Saudi Arabia. Sensory evaluation by quality index method and some chemical analysis such as biogenic amines were done. The obtained results showed that there were significant differences between all studied fish species in pH and TVN value at P>0.05. However, there were no any significant differences in case of fish quality%. It could be noticed that there were 8 samples from 33 samples exceeded pH value of 6.80, represented 24.24% of all samples, and there were 3 samples exceeded TVN value of 30mg/100g, represented 9.09% of all samples. As for quality %, there were 4 samples from 33 samples below 50%, represented 12.12% of all samples. Meanwhile, histamine content of studied fish samples ranged from 0.66±0.33 mg/100g in rusty parrot fish to 17.21±2.85 mg/100g in grey mullet. Eleven fish samples exceeded the permissible limit of tyramine represented 33.33%. The statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences between all studied fish samples in tyramine and phenethylamine content at P>0.05 with F value of 0.89 and 0.68, respectively. It is recommended to carry out the same study on other central fish markets such as Jeddah, Riyadh and Dammam. Consequently, a complete quality assurance system must be planned to be applied in any central fish market in Saudi Arabia. It should be considered some criteria such as refrigerated cars, sun protected receiving area, fish layer thickness, ice/fish ratio, using of fine ice, using of salty ice and mechanical refrigeration.
Shady Mohammed ElShehawy,
Ali Abd El-Fatah Gab-Alla,
Hamed Mohammed Mutwally,
Quality Attributes of the Most Common Consumed Fresh Fish in Saudi Arabia, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2016, pp. 85-94.
Ariño, A.; Beltrán, J. A.; Herrera, A. and Roncalés, P. (2013). Fish and Seafood: Nutritional Value. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, from Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition), Pp: 254-261.
FAO (2013a). Nutritional elements of fish. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/12319/en
FAO (2015). Fisheries Department Statistical Databases and software. http://www.fao.org;ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/stat/summary/default.htm
Pacheco-Aguilar, R.; Lugo-Sanchez, M. E. and Robles-Burgueno, M. R. (2000). Postmortem biochemical and functional characteristic of Monterey sardine muscle stored at 0°C. Journal of Food Science, 65: 40-47.
Özogul, F.; Polaa, A. and Özogul, Y. (2004). The effects of modified atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging on chemical, sensory and microbiological changes of sardines (Sardina pilchardus). Food Chemistry, 85: 49-57.
FAO (2013b). Post-harvest changes in fish. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/12320/en
Al-Kandari, D. and Jukes, D. J. (2009). A situation analysis of the food control systems in Arab Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Food control, 20: 1112-1118.
Oehlenschläger, J. (1997). Sensory evaluation in inspection. In: Olafsdóttir, G.; Luten, J.; Dalgaard, P.; Careche, M.; Verrez-Bagnis, E.; Martinsdótirr; E. and Heia, K. Eds. Methods to Determine the Freshness of Fish in Research and Industry. Proceedings of the Final Meeting of the Concerted Action Evaluation of Fish Freshness. Paris: International Institute of Refrigeration pp. 339-334.
Olafsdottir, G.; Martinsdottir, E.; Oehlenschlager, J.; Dalgaard, P.; Jensen, B.; Undeland, I.; Mackie, I. M.; Henehan, G.; Nielsen, J. and Nilsen, H. (1997). Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry. Trends Food Sci. Tech., 8: 258-265.
Martinsdottir, E.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Luten, J. B.; Schelvis-Smit, R. and Hyldig, G. (2001). Sensory Evaluation of Fish Freshness. Reference Manual for the Fish Sector. Ijmuiden: QIM-Eurofish.
Lapa-Guimaraes, J.; de Felicio, P. E. and Contreras, E. S. G. (2005). Chemical and microbial analyses of squid muscle (Loligo plei) during storage in ice. Food Chemistry, 91(3): 477-483.
Zaitsev, V.; Kizevetter, I.; Langunov, L.; Mokarova, T.; Minoler, L. and Podsevalov, V. (1969). Fish Curing and Processing. Mir publisher, Moscow.
Sallam, Kh. I.; Ahmed, A. M.; Elgazzar, M. M. and Eldaly, E. A. (2007). Chemical quality and sensory attributes of marinated Paciﬁc saury (Cololabis saira) during vacuum-packaged storage at 4ºC. Food Chemistry, 102: 1061-1070.
Pedrosa-Menabrito, A. and Regenstein, J. M.(1988). Shelf-life extension of fresh-fish spoilage of fish. Journal of Food Quality, 11: 117-127.
Chong, C. Y.; Abu Bakar, F.; Russly, A. R.; Jamilah, B. and Mahyudin, N. A. (2011). The effects of food processing on biogenic amines formation. International Food Research Journal, 18(3): 867-876.
FDA (1996). Decomposition and histamine in raw, frozen tuna and mahi-mahi, canned tuna and related species. Compliance Policy Guide. 7108.240.
Lima Dos Santos, C.; James, D. and Teutscher, F. (1981). Guidelines for chilled fish storage experiments. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 210.
Nielsen, D. and Hyldig, G. (2004). Influence of handling procedures and biological factors on the QIM evaluation of whole herring (Clupea harengus L.). Food Research International, 37: 975-983.
Pearson, D. (1968). Application of chemical methods for the assessment of beef quality. ІІ: Methods related to protein breakdown. Journal of food Science and Agriculture, 19(7): 366.
Deabes, M. M. (2000). Studies on some biogenic amines in some meat and fish products with respect to other quality attributes. M. Sc. Thesis, Food Science and Technology Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt.
SPSS, (2008). Statistical Package for Social Sciences Program, Version 17 for Windows, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA.
Huss, H. H. (1995). Quality and Quality changes in Fresh Fish. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 348: FAO, United Nations, Rome.
Connell, J. J. (1995). Control of Fish Quality-Proposed Limit of Acceptability for Marine Species. Fishing News Ltd., Surrey, England, 179pp.
Kapute, F.; Likongwe, J.; Kang’ombe, J.; Kiiyukia, C. and Mpeketula, P. (2012). Quality Assessment of Fresh Lake Malawi Tilapia (Chambo) Collected from Selected Local and Super Markets in Malawi. Internet Journal of Food Safety, 14: 113-121.
Nuñez M.; Olmo, A. and Calzada, J. (2016). Biogenic amines. Reference Module in Food Science, from Encyclopedia of Food and Health, Pp: 416-423.
Ladero, V.; Calles-Enriquez, M.; Fernandez, M. and Alvarez, M. A. (2010). Toxicological effects of dietary biogenic amines. Curr. Nutr. Food Sci., 6: 145-156.
EU (2005). Commission Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union. L338/1.