Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the Production and Optimization of Extruded Instant Porridge from Broken Rice Fractions Blended with Cowpea
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 2, March 2016, Pages: 105-116
Received: Oct. 2, 2015;
Accepted: Oct. 13, 2015;
Published: Mar. 8, 2016
Views 4020 Downloads 183
Danbaba Nahemiah, Food Technology and Value Addition Research Program, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria; Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Iro Nkama, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Mamudu Halidu Badau, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Instant porridge from low grade broken rice fractions blended with cowpea to enhance protein quantity and quality was developed in this study through extrusion cooking technology. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) were adopted for the formulation and optimization of the process variables. The main objective was to obtain the optimum level of extruder barrel temperature (X1), feed moisture level (X2) and feed cowpea level (X3) that will produce optimum porridge having appreciably high protein, water dispersibility, lysine content and calorie value. ANOVA indicated significance (p˂0.05) of the models fitted in describing the relationship between the input and output variables in its natural state. The coefficient of the determination was also greater than 80% and non-significant lack-of-fit test. Numerical optimization results indicated that the optimum input variables were 120°C barrel temperature, 24g/100g cowpea formulation and 20g/100g feed moisture composition which produce 99.02% dispersibility, 24.13g/100g protein, 73.44% carbohydrate and 388.82kcal/100g calorie, and lysine of 5.02mg/g protein. These data will sharpen the weaning food industry by providing wide opportunity for new food production using low grade rice and common legumes, thereby increasing the economic values of both locally grown rice and cowpea.
Mamudu Halidu Badau,
Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the Production and Optimization of Extruded Instant Porridge from Broken Rice Fractions Blended with Cowpea, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2016, pp. 105-116.
AOAC. (1984). Official method of Analysis, 14th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Washington D.C.
Abd El-Hady, E. A.; Mostafa, G. A.; El-Samahy, S. K. and El-Saies, I. A. (1998). Production of high fiber corn extrudates. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 23(3): 1231-1245.
Anyalogbu E. A., Onyeike. E. N., and M. O Monanu (2015). Effect of heat treatment on the amino acid profile of Plukenetia conophora seed kernel flours. Int. J. Biochem Rese. and Rev. 7(3): 121-131.
Anuar Nordiyanah, Ahmad Faris Mohd Adnan, Naziz Saat, Norkasmani Aziz and Rosna Mat Taha (2013). Optimization of Extraction Parameters by Using Response Surface Methodology, Purification, and Identification of Anthocyanin Pigments in Melastoma malabathricum Fruit. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, The Scientific World Journal Volume 2013, Article ID 810547, 10 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/810547.
Anderson, R. A., Conway, H. F., Pfeifer, V. F., Grifﬁn, E. L., (1969). Gelatinization of corn grits by roll and extrusion cooking. Cereal Science Today 14(1), 4–12.
Akdogan, H. (1999). Pressure, torque and energy responses of a twin screw extruder at high moisture contents. Food Research International, 29(5-6): 423-429.
Asare EK., Sefa-dedeh S., E. O Afoakwa., E. Sakyi-Dawson and AS Budu (2012). Extrusion cooking of rice-groundnut cowpea mixture-effects of extruder characteristics on nutritive value and physic-functional properties of extrudates using response surface methodology. Journal of food processing and preservation. 36: 465-476 http://dx.doi.org/10111/j.1745-4549.2011.00605.x.
Bryant R. J., R. S Kadan., E. J Champagne, B. T Veinyard and B. B Boykin (2001). Functional and digestive characteristics of extruded rice flour. Cereal Chemistry 78: 131-137.
Bhandari, B., B. Darcy and G. Young. 2001. Flavour retention during high temperature short time extrusion cooking process: A review. Intl. J. Food Sci. Technol. 36(1): 453-61.
El-Samahy S.K., Abd El-hady E. A., Habiba R. A and T. E Moussa-Ayoub (2007). Some functional, chemical and sensory characteristics of cactus pear rice-based extrudates. J.PACD-2007: 136-147.
Filli K B, Nkama I (2007). Hydration properties of extruded fura from millet and legumes. Brazilian Food Journal., 109(1): 68-80.
Filli K. B, I. Nkama, V. A. Jideani and U. M. Abubakar (2012). The Effect of Extrusion Conditions on the Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Millet – Cowpea Based Fura. European Journal of Food Research & Review 2(1): 1-23, SCIENCEDOMAIN international www.sciencedomain.org.
Philips R. D., Chhinnan MS., and Kennedy MB (1984).Effect of feed moisture content and barrel temperature on physical properties of extruded cowpea meal. Journal of Food Science, 49: 916-921.
Singh B, Sekhon KS, Singh N (2007). Effects of moisture, temperature and level of pea grits on extrusion behaviour and product characteristics of rice. Food Chemistry, 110: 198-202.
Ding Q. B., Ainsworth P., Tuker G, and Marson H (2005). The effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of rice – based expanded snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 66: 284-289.
Nkama I, Filli KB (2006). Development and Characteristics of Extruded fura from mixtures of pearl millet and grain legumes flours. International Journal of Food Properties, 9: 157-165.
Noordin M. Y., V. C Venkatesh., S. Sharif., S. Elting and A. Abdullah (2004). Application of response surface methodology in describing the performance of coated carbide tools when turning AISI 1045 steel. Journal of Materials Processing Technologies. 145: 46-56. Doi: 10.1016/SO924-0136(03)00861-6.
FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). Energy and protein requirements. Tech. Rep. Series 724, Expert Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Friedman M (2004). Application of the ninhydrin reaction for analysis of amino acids, peptides, and proteins in agricultural and biomedical sciences. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 52: 385-406.
Obatolu VA (2002). Nutrient and sensory qualities of extruded malted or unmalted millet/soybean mixture. Food Chemistry, 76: 129-133.
Mitzner, K., Shrimshaw, N., Morgan, R. (1984). Improving the nutritional status of children during weaning period. International Food and Nutrition Program. Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 USA.
Pelembe, L. A. M., Erasmus, C., Taylor, J. R. N. (2002). Development of a Protein – rich Composite Sorghum – Cowpea Instant Porridge by Extrusion Cooking Process. Lebensm – Wiss. U – Technol., 35, 120 – 127.
Harper, J., Jansen, G. (1985). Production of nutritious precooked foods in developing countries by low – cost extrusion technology. Food Review International, 1, 27 – 97.
Mclarem, C. G., Bartolome, V. I., Carrasco, M. C., Quintana, L. C., Ferino, M. I. B., Mojica, J. Z., Olea, A. B., Paunlagui, L. C., Ramos, C. G., Ynalvea, M. A. (1977). Experimental design and data analysis for agricultural research, vol. 1. Los Banos, Laguna: International Rice Research Institute.
Gupta K, Mansi Verma, Payal Jain and Monika Jain (2014). Process Optimization for Producing Cowpea Added Instant Kheer Mix Using Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Nutrition Health Food Engineering, 1(5): 00030.
Rashid S., Rakha A., Anjum F. M., Ahmed W and M. Sohail (2015). Effect of extrusion cooking on the dietary fibre content and water solubility index of wheat bran extrudates International Journal of food Science and Technology, 34:123-156. Doi:10.1111/ijfs.12798.
Ryu, G. H.; Neumann, P. E. and Walker, C. E. (1993). Effects of some baking ingredients on physical and structural properties of wheat flour extrudates. Cereal Chemistry, 70(3): 291-297.
Moore, D.; Sanei, E.; Vanhecke, Z. and Bouvier, J. M. (1990). Effect of ingredients on physical/ structural properties of extrudate. Journal of Food Science, 55: 1383-1387, 1402.
Otegbayo, B.O.1, Samuel, F.O.2 and Alalade, T. (2013). Functional properties of soy-enriched tapioca. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12 (22): 3583-3589. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB12.2654.
Ilo, S., Liu, Y., and Berghofer, E. (1999). Extrusion cooking of rice flour and amaranth blends. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, 32, 79–88.
Gannon, R (1997). Rice evolution. Rice Journal, January, 24-26.
WARDA, (2003).Strategy for rice sector revitalization in Nigeria. Project report. WARDA, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, 14p.
Erenstein, O. and F. Lancon, (2003). Report of the Final Technical Workshop, 20-21 August, Ibadan, Nigeria. Project Report. WARDA, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, 24p.
Kulkarni KD, Kulkarni DN, Ingle UM (1991). Sorghum malt-based weaning food formulations: Preparation, functional properties and nutritive value. Food and Nutr. Bull. 13 (4): 322-327.
Iwe, M. O., D. J. Van Zauilichaem, P. O. Ngoody and C. C. Ariahu. (2001). Residence time distribution in a single screw extruder processing soy-sweet potato mixtures. J. Food Sci. Technol. 34(7): 233-239.
Iwe, M. O., van Zuilichem. D. J.. Stolp. W. and Ngoddy, P. O. (2004). Effect of extrusion cocking of soy-sweet potato mixtures on available lysine content and browning index of extrudates. J. Food Engr. 62:143-150.
Manful J.T., Quaye W and Gayin J (2004). Feasibility study on parboiled rice quality improvement program in some selected communities around Tamale in Northern region of Ghana. Report for the Food Security and Rice producers organization project (FSRPOP).CSIR-FRI/RE/MJT/2004/020.
Montgomery D. C (1997). Response surface methods and other approaches to process optimization. In: Design and analysis of experiment. DC Montgomery (Ed.); John Wiley and Sons, New York USA: pp427-510.
Noordin M. Y., V. C Venkatesh., S. Sharif., S. Elting and A. Abdullah (2004). Application of response surface methodology in describing the performance of coated carbide tools when turning AISI 1045 steel. Journal of materials processing Technologies. 145: 46-56. http://doi: 10.1016/SO924-0136(03)00861-6.
Nwosu J. N, Ubbaonu C. N, Banigo E. O. I, Uzomah A (2008). The effect of processing on amino acid profile of “Oze” (Bosqucia angolensis) seed flour. Life science Journal. 2008; 5(4): 69-74.
Onyeike E. N, Ayalogu E. O, Okaraonye C. C (2005). Nutritive value of the larvae of raphia palm beetles (Oryctes rhinoceros) and weevil (Rhyncophorus pheonicis). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2005; 85: 1822-1828.
Filli K. B.., I. Nkama, V. A. Jideani and U. M. Abubakar (2011). Application of response surface methodology for the study of composition of extruded millet-cowpea mixtures for the manufacture of fura: A Nigerian food. African Journal of Food Science 5(17): 884-896. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajfs DOI: 10.5897/AJFS11.169.
Zaibunnisa A. H., S. Norasikin S., S. Mamot and H. Osman (2009). An experimental design approach for the extraction of volatile compounds from turmeric leaves (Curcuma domestica) using Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). Journal of Food Science and Technology 42:233-238.
Eke-Ejiofor J, Owuno F (2012). Functional and Pasting Properties of wheat/three-leaf yam (Dioscorea Dumentorcem) Composite flour blend. Glob. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 3(4):330-335.
Zhang, W and Hoseney, R. C (1998). Factors affecting expansion of corn meals with poor and good expansion properties. Cereal Chem. 75(5): 639-643.
Rhee, K., Cho, S and Pradahn, A (1999). Composition, storage ability and sensory properties of expanded extrudates from blends of corn starch and goat meat, lamb mutton, spendt fowl meat, or beaf. Meat Sci., 52(2): 135-141.
King V. A. E and R. R Zall (1992). Aresponse surface methodology approach to the optimization of controlled low-temperature vacuum dehydration. Food Research International 25(1): 1-8.
Nabeshima E. H., and M. V. E Grossmann (2001). Functional properties of pre-gelatinized and cross-linked cassavastarch obtained by extrusion with sodium trimetaphosphate. Carboh. Polym., 45, 347-353.